The future of wireless technology
A shift from voice to data, including enhanced rich MMS on the mobile environment, is driving the noble operators to move towards new wireless technologies. These technologies offer new opportunities in service capabilities significantly improved data rates and latency performance, 3GPP (third generation partnership project) whose organizational partners include standards bodies like ETS (European Telecommunication Standards institutions) ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Business of Japan) to name a few have evolved a single common specification for future wireless networks that would also provide default global roaming. The recent introduction of 3G by BSNL and MTNL, initially deploying release 99 specifications and moving over to release 4 and release 5, marks a transition form 2G to 3G and further to more advanced technologies in the coming years . These would add value to mobile networks by increasing data rates with enhanced functionalities like video call etc. while the proposed spectrum allotment to private operators is expected to accelerate the growth of 3G in India, the scenario may see a great change if service providers opt for something beyond 3G market may be flooded with lot of high quality and high end data facilities, as witnessed in several other countries including China and Korea, if service providers adopt Long Term Evolution (LTE) rel 8 of 3GPP. LTE is characterized by increased down link ad up link data rates of 50 Mbps and 100 Mbps respectively over 3G and also use of scalable channel bandwidth from 1.25 / 2.5 / 10 MHz. The latency (propagation delay) is reduced to 10ms from few 100 ms in 3G. The most significant feature of LTE is the increase in special efficiency (bits/ sec/ hertz) The present cost of spectrum for 3G is high compared with 2G and this would force every operator to adopt a scheme where he gets more bits per second per hertz( good spectral efficiency). Naturally the LTS technology is the latest and most favorable one recommended by an official body viz 3GPP. Efficient deployment smooth integration and optimal operations and management execution of LTE would improve business results by providing exciting new services. LTE is an important evolutionary step that builds on GSM /EDGE and WCDMA / HSPA to make higher data rates for mobile broadband services economically viable. The objective of LTE is to improve spectral efficiency, lower costs enhance service provisioning integrate pen standard including those related to IP and co-exist with legacy standards while evolving to an all –IP e2e Network. The technical advantage is leveraged by anew air interface called OFDMA (orthogonal frequency division multiplex access) in downlink and SC – FDMA (single carrier frequency division access) in the uplink. These would support multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antennas to double the peak signal strength at the receiving end. LTE would also have increased IMS (IP multimedia services) capable services. There are a host of new services that can be expected to become available once LTE is introduced. For instance, e-health services with remote monitoring, diagnostic and imaging capabilities digital signage; mobile advertising in vehicle video and audio services and personalized services combining location preference presence and address book information can be expected. The mobile operators who have deployed LTE world over include, Orange, Vodafone T-mobile, KPN and Telecom Italia in Europe, AT&T and Verizone in the US, China Mobile and Korea Telecom. ABI research estimates 80% of the operators would lap u LTE even as they transit to 4G, which is LTE advanced of 3GPP specification.
Surface and Substance:
Nanotecture, a university of Southampton spin out has developed a nanoporous material for the production of energy storage devices such as super capacitors to dramatically improve performance. The nanoporous material is made of nickel hydroxide comprising particles that are 2-20µ in size. The production technique introduces billions of pores to increase the surface area of the material and therefore its availability for, and arte of, reaction. The material can be produced as a fine green powder which can be used to coat electrodes, or applied as a thin film that deposits the metal on to the electrodes. Both methods have been proved to increase the charge and discharge rates of materials in super capacitors. Nanotecture gas developed a patented asymmetric hybrid super capacitor which has one carbon electrode and one nonporous nickel hydroxide electrode. Tests have shown this design to have high energy density and an ability to deliver quick bursts of high power. Nanotecture says it has carried out thousands of hours of testing of the super capacitor ad found that it has superior performance and lifecycle attributes compared to nonporous equivalents. It says the unit has high conductivity and allow freezing point, enabling use within a wide temperature range. Nanotecture says the superior cycle life and ability to deliver quick bursts of high power make the asymmetric hybrid super capacitor ideal for temporary storage and discharge of electrical energy in electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The technology could also potentially be used on trucks for engine starting following anti-idling legislation, providing a smaller and lighter alternative to a lead acid battery. It could also be used for energy harvesting short term power back up for un-interruptible power supply applications and smoothing out short term disruptions in electric power grids. Other small device applications in consumer markets could be as a power device for a camera flash on a mobile phone or to power the GPS function on a 2G mobile phone.