The concept of whole learning suggests that employees learn better if the job information is explained as an entire logical process, so that they can see how the various actions fit together into the big picture. A broad overview of what the trainee would be doing on the job should be given top priority if learning has to take place quickly. Research studies have also indicated that it is more efficient to practice a whole task all at once rather that trying to master the various components of the task at different intervals.
Practice makes a man perfect: so said Bacon. To be a swimmer you should plunge into water instead of simply reading about swimming or looking at films of the world’s best swimmers. Learning is enhanced when trainees are provided ample opportunities to repeat the task. For maximum benefit practice sessions should be distributed over time.
Applicability of Training:
Training should be as real as possible so that trainees can successfully transfer the new knowledge to their jobs, The training situations should be set up so that trainees can visualize and identify with the types of situation they can come across on the job.
Finally Environment plays a major role in training. It is natural that workers who are exposed to training in comfortable environments with adequate well spaced rest periods are more likely to learn than employees whose training conditions are less than ideal. Generally speaking learning is very fast at the beginning. Thereafter, the pace of learning slows down as opportunities for improvements taper off.
Area of training:
The Areas of Training in which training is offered may be classified in to the following categories:
Here the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products or services offered by the company. The aim is to make the new employee fully aware of what goes on inside and outside the company.
The employee is taught specific skill (e.g. operating machine handling computer etc) so that he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully.
The employee is made to learn about himself and others, and to develop a right mental attitude towards the job colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching the employee how to be a team member and get ahead.
This involves the application of knowledge of a skill to various on the job situations.
In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of employees training aims to molding employees attitudes; When administered properly a training program will go a long way in obtaining employees loyalty, support and commitment to company activities.
Types of training:
There are many approaches to training. We focus here on the types of training that are commonly employed in preset day organizations.
Skills training: This type of training is the most common in organizations. The process here is fairly simple. The need for training in basic skills (such as reading, writing, computing, speaking, listening, problem solving, managing oneself, knowing how to learn, working as part of a team, leading others) is identified through assessment. Specific training objectives are set and training content is developed to meet those objectives. Several methods are available for imparting these basic skills in modern organizations (such as lectures, apprenticeship on the job coaching etc.) Before employing the methods, managers should:
1) Explain how the training will help the trainees in their job.
2) Relate the training to the trainee’s goals.
3) Respect and consider participant responses and use these as a resource.
4) Encourage trainees to learn by doing.
5) Give feedback on progress towards meeting learning objectives.