Once trainings needs are identified objectives should be set to begin meeting these needs.
Objectives of training:
1) Anticipating problems before they occur
2) Team building sessions with the departments.
1) Training clerks to reduce complaints
2) Training supervisors in communications to reduce grievances
2) Recurring training of interviews
3) Refresher courses on safety procedures.
Training objectives can be of three types. The most basic training takes place through orientation programs. The second type of training objective is problem solving. The focus is on solving a specific problem instead of providing general information about a problem area. The final objective is innovation. Here the emphasis is on changing the mind set of workers, supervisors and executives working at various levels.
Training methods are usually classified by the location of instructions. On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities in the actual workplace; off the job training on the other hand requires that trainees learn at a location other than the real work spot. Some of the widely used training methods are listed below:
Job Instructing Training (JIT):
The JIT method (developed during World War II) is a four step instructional process involving preparation, presentation performances try out and follow up. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. A trainer, supervisor or co-worker acts as the act. The four steps followed in the JIT methods are :
1) The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purposes and its outcomes, with a clear focus on the relevance of training.
2) The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. The trainer shows the right way to handle the job.
3) Next, the employees are permitted to copy the trainer’s way. Demonstration by the trainer and practice by the trainees are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job.
4) Finally, the employee does the job independently without supervision.
Job Instruction Training:
1) Trainee learns fast through practice and observation.
2) It is economical as it does not require any special settings. Also, mistakes can be corrected immediately
3) The trainee gains confidence quickly as he does the work himself in actual setting with help from the supervisor.
4) It is most suitable for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs where the job operations are simple, easy to explain and demonstrate within a short span of time.
1) The trainee should be as good as the trainer if the trainer is not good in transferring of knowledge then the skills will be poor.
2) While learning trainee may damage equipments, water materials, cause accidents frequently
3) Experienced workers cannot use the machinery while it is being used for training.
Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback given to employees by the immediate supervisors. It involves a continuous process of learning by doing. It may be defined as an informal, unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisors and peers. In coaching the supervisor explains things and answers questions ; he throws light on why things are done the way they are; he offers a model for trainees to copy, conducts lot of decision making meetings with trainees, procedures are agreed upon and the trainee is given enough authority to make decisions and even commit mistakes. Of course coaching can be a taxing job in that the coach may not possess requisite skills to guide the learner in a systematic way. Sometimes doing a full day’s work may be more important than putting the learner on track.