EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES IN CONTEXT OF MARKETING
There are several processes, the most current models of which see the process as cognitively oriented. How does the consumer process competitive brand information and make a final value judgment? No single process is used by all consumers or by one consumer in all buying situations. That is, they see the consumer as forming judgment largely on a conscious and rational basis.
Some basic concepts will help us understand consumer evaluation processes: First, the consumer is trying to satisfy a need. Second, the consumer is looking for certain benefits from the product solution. Third, the consumer sees each product as a bundle of attributes with varying abilities for delivering the benefits sought to satisfy this need. The attributes of interest to buyers vary by product — for example:
1. Cameras:- Picture sharpness, camera speeds, camera size, price.
2. Hotels:- Location, cleanliness, atmosphere, price.
3. Mouthwash:- Color, effectiveness, germ-killing capacity, price, taste / flavor
4. Tires:- Safety, treads life, ride quality, price.
Consumers will pay the most attention to attributes that deliver the sought after benefits. The market for a product can often be segmented according to attributes that are important to different consumer groups.
Beliefs and Attitudes
Evaluations often reflect beliefs and attitudes. Through experience and learning, people acquire beliefs and attitudes. These in turn influence buying behavior. A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. Peopleâ€™s beliefs about the attributes and benefits of a product or brand influence their buying decisions. Just as important as beliefs are attitudes. An attitude is a personâ€™s enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluation, emotional feeling and action tendencies toward some object or idea. People have attitudes toward almost everything: religion, politics, clothes, music, and food.
Attitudes put people into a frame of mind: liking or disliking an object, moving toward or away from it. Here is an example of an organization that used ad campaigns to remind consumers of their attitudes, with handsome results.
Case if California milk processor board (CMPB)
After a 20-year decline in milk consumption among Californians, in 1993 milk processors from across the state formed the CMPB with one goal in mind: to get people to drink more milk. The ad agency commissioned by the CMPB developed a novel approach to pitching milkâ€™s benefit. The â€˜Got Milk?â€™ tagline served to remind consumers to make sure they had milk in their refrigerators. The â€œGot Milkâ€? campaign continues to pay strong dividends. For 2002 and the first half of 2003, milk sales in California, where the ad campaign is centered, increased roughly 1.5%, whereas sales in the rest of the country remained flat.
Attitudes lead people to behave in a fairly consistent way toward similar objects. Because attitudes economize on energy and thought, they can be very difficult to change. A company is well-advised to fit its product into existing attitudes rather than try to change attitudes.