LEVEL OF CONSUMER INVOLVEMENT
The expectancy value model assumes a high level of involvement on the part of the consumer. Consumer Involvement can be defined in terms of the level of engagement and active processing undertaken by the consumer in responding to a marketing stimulus (e.g.. from viewing an ad or evaluating a product or service).
Elaboration likelihood Mode
There are two means of persuasion with their model: The central route, where attitude formation or change involves much thought and is based on a diligent, rational consideration of the most important product or service information; and the peripheral route, where attitude formation or change involves comparatively much less though and is a consequence of the association of a brand with either positive or negative peripheral cues. Examples of peripheral cues for consumers might be a celebrity endorsement, a credible source, or nay object that engendered positive feelings.
Consumers follow the central route only if they possess sufficient motivation, ability, and opportunity. In other words, consumers, consumers must want to evaluate a brand in detail, must have the necessary brand and product or service knowledge in memory, and must be given sufficient time and the proper setting to actually do so. If any one o those three factors is lacking, consumers will tend to follow the peripheral route and consider less central, more extrinsic factors in their decisions.
Low involvement Marketing Strategies
Many products are bought under conditions of low involvement and the absence of significant brand differences. Consider salt, consumers have little involvement in this product category. They go to the stores and reach for the brand. If they reach for the same brand, it is out of habit, not strong brand loyalty. There is good evidence that consumers have low involvement with most low-cost, frequently purchased products.
Marketers use four techniques to try to convert a low involvement product into one of higher involvement. First, they can link the product to some involving issue, as when Crest toothpaste is linked to avoiding cavities. Second, they can link the product to some involving personal situation — for example, fruit juice makers began to include vitamins such as calcium to fortify their drinks. Third, they might design advertising to trigger strong emotions related to personal values or ego defense, as when cereal makers began to advertise the hear-healthy nature of cereals to adults and the importance of living long time to enjoy family life. Fourth, they might add an important feature — for example, when GE lights bulbs introduced â€œSoft whiteâ€? versions. These strategies at best raise consumersâ€™ involvement from a low to a moderate level; they do not necessarily propel the consumer into highly involved buying behavior.
If, regardless of what the marketer can do, consumers will have low involvement with a purchase decision, they are likely to follow the peripheral route. Marketers must pay special attention to giving consumers one or more positive cues that they can use to justify their brand choice. Brand familiarity can be important if consumers decide to just buy the brand about which they have heard or seen the most. Frequent ad repetition, visible sponsorships, and vigorous PR are all ways to enhance brand familiarity. Other peripheral cues can also be used. A beloved celebrity endorser, attractive packaging, or an appealing promotion all might tip the balance in favor of the brand.