Novel materials and quantum effects


There is a possibility of making novel materials using quantum effects.

Further applications

1. quantum computer, much more powerful than the existing ones;
2. quantum sized particles for dirty tasks like decomposing toxic gases;
3. quantum particles for optical properties like night vision;
4. quantum particles to substitute silver halide in photographic film;
5. optical switches in optical computers;

Design by Computers

Computers are doing both the calculating operations required in the design work and the actual making of engineering drawings. General Electric uses computer to design electric motors. GM uses them in automobile design. Air plane companies use them to compute the contours of the wings and to layout electronic circuits.

The key elements are thus function, cost, quality and reliability. Other elements that affect the design are appearance, safety, carrying out repairs, environmental impact, timing and accessibility

These considerations sometimes require a trade-off. Marketing considerations like segmentation lead to specialized product version (different TV sets from one manufacturer).

Preferred Numbers

Many products can be made in a continuous series of sizes, from very small to extremely large, but to them such a series would be impractical. Electrical light bulbs, motors, motors, clothing, shoes, packaged food, tin cans, and many other items can be made in very small or very large sizes and in any number of in between sizes. Manufacturers of such products must decide upon certain particular sizes. Only in this way can enough volume be concentrated in particular sizes to permit economical manufacture and sale. Today the makers of the products listed above, and many others, make most of their products only in standard sizes.

Generally a geometric progression of size differences (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 etc) is more satisfactory to customers and meets their needs better, than an arithmetic progression (5, 10, 15, 20 etc).

National Institute of Design

NID is a premier design training institution at Ahmedabad in India. It offers diploma courses in industrial design. Students first join a foundation course of two years, followed by a specialization in textile design, product design, furniture design, ceramic design, and graphic design. These days even IITs have included industrial design in their curricula.

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