Following are descriptions of the distinctive aspects of each of the 14 cultural groups videotaped. Certainly conclusion about the individual cultures cannot be drawn from an analysis of only six business people in each culture but the suggested cultural differences are worthwhile to consider briefly.
Consistent with most descriptions of Japanese negotiation behavior, the results of this analysis suggests their style of integration is among the least aggressive (or the most polite). Threats, commands and warnings appear to be deemphasized in favor of the more positive promises, recommendation and commitments particularly indicative of their conversational style was their infrequent use of ‘no’ and ‘you’ and facial gazing as well as more frequent silent periods.
Perhaps one of the more interesting aspects of the analysis is the contrast of the Asian styles of negotiation. Non-Asians often generalize about Asians; the findings demonstrate however that this is a mistake. Korean negotiations used considerably more punishments and commends that so did the Japanese. Koreans used the word no and interrupted more than three times as frequently as the Japanese. Moreover, no silent periods occurred with Korean negotiators.
The behaviors of the negotiators from northern China (i.e. in and Tianjin) were most remarkable in the emphasis on asking questions (34 per cent). Indeed, 70 per cent of the statements made by the Chinese negotiators were classified as information exchange tactics. Other aspects of their behavior were quite similar to the Japanese particularly the use of ‘no’ and ‘you’ and silent periods.
The behavior of the business people in Taiwan was quite different from that in China and Japan but similar to that in Korea. The Chinese in Taiwan were exceptional in the time of facial gazing – on the average almost 20 of 30 minutes. They asked fewer questions and provided more information (self disclosures) than did any of the other Asian groups.
The Russian style was quite different from that of any other European group, and indeed was quite similar in many respects to the Japanese. They used ‘ no’ and ‘you’ infrequently and used the most silent periods of any group. Only the Japanese did less facial gazing and only the Chinese asked a greater percentage of questions.
The behavior of the Germans is difficult to characterize because they felt towards center of almost all continuously. However, the Germans were exceptional in the high percentage of self disclosures (47 percent) and the low percentage of questions ( 11 per cent).
The behaviors of the British negotiators were remarkably similar to those of the Americans in all aspects
Diga is perhaps a good metaphor for the Spanish approach to the negotiations evinced in our data. When you make a phone call in Madrid, the usual greeting on the other end is not hola (hello) but is, instead diga (speak). It is not surprising then, that the Spaniards in the videotaped negotiations likewise used the highest percentage of commands (17 per cent) of any of the groups and gave comparatively little information (self disclosures only 34 per cent). Moreover they interrupted one another more frequently than any other group and they used the terms ‘no’ and ‘you’ very frequently.
The style of the French negotiators was perhaps the most aggressive of all the groups. In particular they used the highest percentage of threats and warnings (together 8 percent). They also used interruptions, facial gazing, and no and you very frequently compared with the other groups and one of the French negotiators touched his partner’s other arm during the simulations