The marketerâ€™s task is to devise marketing activities and assemble fully integrated marketing programs to create, communicate, and deliver value for consumers. The marketing program consists of numerous decisions on value â€“ enhancing marketing activities to use. Marketing activities come in all forms. One traditional depiction of marketing activities is in terms of the marketing mix, which has been defined as the set of marketing tools the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives. McCarthy classified these tools into four broad groups, which he called the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion.
The particular marketing variables under each P are shown. Marketing-mix decisions must be made for influencing the trade channels as well as the final consumers. The company while preparing to reach the trade channels and the target customers comes out with an offering of mix of products, services, and prices utilizing a communication mix of advertising, sales promotion, events and experiences, public relations, direct marketing and personal selling.
The firm can change its price, sales force size, and advertising expenditures in the short run. It can develop new products and modify its distribution channels only in the long run. Thus the firm typically makes fewer period-to-period marketing-mix changes in the short run than the number of marketing-mix decision variables might suggest.
The four Ps represent the sellersâ€™ view of the marketing tools available for influencing buyers. From a buyerâ€™s point of view, each marketing tool is designed to deliver a customer benefit. The sellersâ€™ four Ps correspond to the customersâ€™ four Cs.
Four Ps—————————–Four Cs
Winning companies will be those that can meet customer needs economically and conveniently and with effective communication.
Two key themes of integrated marketing are that
1. many different marketing activities are employed to communicate and deliver value and
2. all marketing activities are coordinated to maximize their joint effects
In other words, the design and implementation of any one marketing activity is done with all other activities in mind. Businesses must integrate their system for demand management resource management, and network management.
For example, an integrated communication strategy involves choosing communication options that reinforce and complement each other. A marketer might selectively employ television, radio, and print advertising, public relations and events, and PR and Website communications so that each contributes on its own as well as improves the effectiveness o-f others. Because there was already a buzz for its remake of the cult 1974 film The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, New Line Cinema relied on a combination of both traditional TV ads and trailers, as well as interactive marketing via AOLâ€™s Instant Messenger and â€œbotsâ€? — robot agents â€“ to help spread the word and get teens talking about the film. Their goal was to create a peer-to-peer communication that is, getting teens to do the marketing for them. Integrated channel strategy involves ensuring that direct (e.g. online sales) and indirect channels (e.g. retail sales) work together to maximize sales and brand equity.