Factors in customer behavior


Behavioral scientist Frederick Herzberg gave the ‘Two factor Theory’ of human motivation. According to him, there are satisfiers and dissatisfies in any work situation. Calling them as motivators or hygiene factors respectively, Herzberg said that it is the motivator that propels individuals to excellence. Extending the theory to marketing, one finds that hygienic factors are product quality, packaging, product warranty, etc. These are the given factors and all customers expect these features in all product groups. But the motivators will be factors like customer focused sales team, a good customer service and may be even just the fact that the usage of a product may help customer create a separate identify for himself or herself. What is therefore important is that marketer should identify these satisfiers in each customer group.

Mc Clelland’s Theory of achievement motivation
Harvard Professor David Mc Clelland has provided a new insight into human motivation. According to hi, there are three motives that drive human beings to higher performance. These are the need for belonging (affiliation need), need for power(i.e. need to influence) and the need for achievement. It is the latter need which makes individuals and societies excel and be creative. Extending the theory to marketing, some products are seen to re[present achievement, while others are seen as power symbols and yet others as product meant for satisfying the need for belonging Marketers have used these motives in evolving their communication programs. Consider for example, the advertising campaigns of credit card companies which appeal to people high on achievement, while the Videocon’s ad for its washing machine, “You are ready for the show� or Maggi noodles “Just two minutes� are campaigns high on affiliation need satisfaction.

Thus, McClelland’s theory does help a firm to evolve its strategies for people motivated by different needs. An important observation in human motivation is that as societies develop primary motives, i.e. physiological needs like sex, hunger, etc. become less important and secondary motives like achievement and power gain higher degree of importance. The Marketer needs to be aware of this process, as for different communities and groups need mix may be different and hence requiring different marketing tasks.