The Human resources informally started almost a century ago going back to the days of pioneer Taylor from labour department it was called personnel dept in 70s and finally rounded to Human Resources Management. Now it encompasses selection and recruitment of employees, pay roll, training and development of employees and finally all administrative work with regards to all employees including confidentiality.
The Human Resources in their research concluded that a satisfied worker can give more output. Gradually more views with varied thoughts began to come out. The Human Resources stressed on workers’ participation in work as well as what they can participate in organization interests. Workers were also given leadership opportunities in daily tasks to do the work reflecting productivity. The Human Resource view design of job tasks and how these can motivate the employees. That is why it is called Human Resources and evolved from personnel and labour department.
The human resources (HR) must ensure that job tasks are designed in such a way that they are not disliked by workers and the workers are satisfied at the end of the day that they have contributed meaningfully to the organization. HR must also ensure that all employees are able to contribute to the firm in full capacity.
HR is also a part of management in thinking and also practical in ensuring that employees’ needs are met. HR evolved the behavioural science based on scientific methods and studies. The Behavioural science draws its actions from psychology, economics etc., and other disciplines. This enabled them to understand employee behaviour better. This helped all organizations to train the employees according to behavioural science.
Many companies employ behavioural science methods for recruitment in the form of tests. In addition they also conduct comprehension tests based on the function for which selection and recruitment is made for.
Most companies train their managers for motivating their subordinates and the training programs incorporate behavioural science theories. Some of the training programs listed are transaction analysis, achievement motivation, leadership styles apart from training in functional areas. Such training is given to executive employees also.
Behavioural science techniques now cover Organizational Development also. In 70s organization development evolved as a separate field deriving some facets of behavioural science improving the performance of the organization to cope up with changes and improve the efficiency. Organization development has also ensured better internal relationship and problem solving capacity. In the process there were many things developed with regards to organization development like matrix organization, self-managed teams, ideas about corporate culture and other types of management.
Later on OD is groomed to deal with organization complexity and organizational environment. The OD still remains an important approach for managers. All OD ventures incorporated behavioural science tools, techniques, and the methods managers have applied to organizations from 3 or 4 decades back.
In modern times managers have developed learning organizations from OD techniques and behavioural sciences. Management applications, organization development tools and behavioural science techniques all play key roles in OD. These have also developed management innovations as the time passed by. The speedy changes organizations have to undergo and increased global competition have motivated management applications and behavioural science approaches.
Managers in addition to job knowledge should also possess knowledge of various jobs, products, markets, of the organization etc.
Multiple management is a system in which a team of managers study problems of the company and make suggestions to higher management. These teams of managers deliberate the actual problems and alternative solutions. Multiple management technique offers several advantages: it helps higher management to know various aspects of their business. It becomes easy to spot people with talent. It is an economical way of training a good number of executives to do things on their own and develop fast.
In addition to job knowledge and organizational knowledge, managers should possess general knowledge as the external environment interacts with and influences the business. The general knowledge includes the knowledge about the economic conditions of the country and the world in general, in respect to major areas such as prices, GNP per capita income, various other industries, other sectors of the economy, political conditions, social factors etc.
The above features some of the OD aspects and perhaps act as a guidance to managers.