A Human Resource specialist normally collects one or more of the following types of information for job analysis:
Work activities: First, he or she collects information about the jobâ€™s actual work activities, such as cleaning, selling, teaching, or painting. This list may also include how, why and when the worker performs each activity.
Human behaviors: The specialist may also collect information about human behaviors like sensing, communicating, deciding, and writing. Included here would be information regarding job demands such as lifting weights or walking long distances.
Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids: This category includes information regarding tools used, materials processed, knowledge dealt with or applied (such as finance or law), and services rendered (such as counseling or repairing).
Performance standards: The employer may also want information about the jobâ€™s performance standards (in terms of quantity or quality levels for each job duty, for instance). Management will use these standards to appraise employees.
Included here is information about such matters as physical working conditions, work schedule, and the organizational and social context â€“ for instance, the number of people with whom the employee would normally interact. Information regarding incentives may also be included here.
Human requirements: This includes information regarding the jobâ€™s human requirements, such as job-related knowledge or skills (education, training, work experience) and required personal attributes (aptitudes, physical characteristics, personality, interests).
Recruitment and Selection: Job analysis provides information about what the job entails and what human characteristics are required to perform these activities. This information in the form of job descriptions and specifications, helps management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire.
Compensation: Job analysis information is crucial for estimating the value of each job and its appropriate compensation. Compensation(such as salary and bonus) usually depends on the jobâ€™s required skill and education level, safety hazards, degree of responsibility and so on â€“ all factors can be assessed through job analysis .
Furthermore, many employers group jobs into classes (say, secretary III and IV). Job analysis provides the information to determine the relative worth of each job and thus its appropriate class.
A performance appraisal compares each employeeâ€™s actual performance with his or her performance standards. Managers use job analysis to determine the jobâ€™s specific activities and performance standards.
Training: The job description should show the activities and skills and therefore the training that the job requires.
Discovering unassigned duties:
Job analysis can also help reveal unassigned duties. For example companyâ€™s production manager says sheâ€™s responsible for a dozen or so duties, such as production scheduling and raw material purchasing. However any reference for managing raw material inventories is missing. On further study, it is learnt that none of the other manufacturing people are responsible for inventory management, either. Reviewing of other jobs like these that someone should be managing inventories it is uncovered as essential unassigned duty, thanks to job analysis.
Here are six steps in doing a job analysis. Letâ€™s look at each of them.
Step 1: Decide how youâ€™ll use the information, since this will determine the data you collect and how collect them. Some data collection techniques like interviewing the employee and asking what the job entails are good for writing job descriptions and selecting employers for the job. Other techniques, like the position analysis questionnaire described later, do not provide qualitative information for job description. Instead, they provide numerical ratings for each job; these can be used to compare jobs for compensation purposes.
Step 2: Review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions. Organization charts show the organization wide division of work, how the job in question relates to other jobs, and where the job fits in the overall organization. The chart should show the title of each position and, by means of interconnecting lines, who reports to whom and with whom the job incumbent communicates.
Step 3: Select representative positions. There may be too many similar jobs to analyze. For example it is usually unnecessary to analyze the jobs of 200 assembly workers when a sample of 10 jobs will do.
Step 4: Actually the job â€“ by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job.
Step 5: Verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his or her immediate supervisor. The will help confirm that the information is factually correct and complete. This review can also help gain the employeeâ€™s acceptance of the job analysis data and conclusions by giving that person a chance to review and modify your description of the job activities.
Step 6: Develop a job description and job specification. These are two tangible products of the job analysis. The job description (to repeat) is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job, as well as its important features, such as working conditions and safety hazards. The job specification summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills and background required for getting the job done. It may be in a separate document or in the same document as the job description.