After the organizational positions are identified, managers are obtained through recruitment, selection, placement, and promotion. There are basically two sources of managerial personnel: People from within the enterprise may be promoted or transferred and managers may be hired from the outside. For internal promotions, a computerized information system may help to identify qualified candidates. It can be used in conjunction with a comprehensive human resource plan. Specifically, it can be utilized to anticipate staff requirements, new openings, attritions, development needs, and career planning.
There are also several external sources available, and the enterprise may use different methods in finding the qualified managers. Many employment agencies public and private and executive recruiters locate suitable candidates for positions. Other sources for managers are professional associations, educational institutions, referrals from people within the enterprise, and, of course, unsolicited applications from persons interested in the firm.
Recruitment of managers
Recruiting involves attracting candidates to fill positions in the organization structure. Before the recruiting process begins, the position’s requirements which should relate directly to the task must be clearly identified. This makes it easier to recruit suitable candidates from outside. Enterprise with a favourable public image find it easier to attract qualified candidates. A company such as GE (General Electric) has a well-recognized image, while small firms – which frequently offer excellent growth and development opportunities may have to make great efforts to communicate to the applicant the kinds of products, services and opportunities they offer.
Selection, Placement, and promotion
Selecting a manager is choosing from among the candidates the one who best meets the position requirements. Since the selection may be for a specific job opening or for future managerial requirements, there are two approaches to filling the organizational positions. In the selection approach applicants are sought to fill a position with rather specific requirements: in the placement approach, the strengths and weaknesses of the individual are evaluated and a suitable position is found or even designed.
Promotion is a change within the organization to a higher position that has greater responsibilities and requires more advanced skills. It usually involves higher status and an increase in pay. The various facets of selection generally apply also to promotion, which may be a reward for outstanding performance or a result of the firm’s desire to better utilize an individual’s skills and abilities. Promotions may be a reward for past performance, but only if there is an evidence of potential competency. Otherwise, persons may be promoted to a level at which they are incompetent.
Personal characteristics needed by managers
In addition to the various skills that effective managers need, several personal characteristics are also important. They are: a desire to manage, the ability to communicate with empathy, integrity and honesty, and the person’s experience – his or her past performance as a manger which is a very significant characteristic.
Desire to manage
The successful manager has a strong desire to manage to influence others, and to get results through team efforts of subordinates. To be sure, many people want the privileges of managerial positions, which include high status and salary, but they lack the basic motivation to achieve result by creating an environment in which people work together towards common aims. The desire to manage requires effort, time, energy, and, usually long hours of work.
Communication skills and Empathy
Another important characteristic of managers is the ability to communicate through written reports, letters, speeches, and discussions. Communication demands clarity, but even more, it demands empathy. This is the ability to understand the feelings of another person and to deal with the emotional aspects of communication. Communication skills are important for an effective intragroup communication, that is, communication with people in the same organizational unit. As one moves up in the organization, however, intergroup communication becomes increasingly important. This is the communication not only with other departments, the community, and, of course, the stockholders in business enterprises.
Integrity and Honesty
Managers must be morally sound and worthy of trust. Integrity in managers includes honesty in money matters and in dealing with others, effort to keep superiors informed, adherence to the full truth, strength of character, and behaviour in accordance with ethical standards. Many of these qualities, and others, have been cited by top executives of major companies.
Past performance as a manager
Another very important characteristic for selection is past performance as a manager. It is probably the most reliable forecast of a manager’s future performance. Of course, an assessment of managerial experience is not possible in selecting first line supervisors from the ranks, since they have not had such an experience. But past accomplishments are important considerations in the selection of middle and upper level managers.