Training Effectiveness – Paper by Manik Wankhede

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to reflect the effectiveness of training in local administration by using the Mean, Standard deviation, Standard error and ‘t’ test.  This study is based on both the primary and secondary data concluding that training helps urban local administration to develop administrative system and to improved performance indicators.

KEYWORDS: Induction training; Need based training; Planned training and Utilisation.

INTRODUCTION

The expectations of citizens are fast increasing as they all now look forward to world class urban facilities and services. our city dwellers need to facilitated in becoming globally competitive in all professions , in all walks of life Accordingly urban management in India is undergoing a three pronged agenda of capacity building which covers on different aspect of municipal functions and in order to overcome all these issues training is important factor in every Organizations and particularly when organization are dealing with civil administration .i.e. we can call as Municipal administration , Training is useful for consolidating the vision that change brings with it and for identifying necessary activities. This paper will focus on the effects of training in Municipal Administration. It is important to note from the beginning that we do not aim to study the goodness services delivery. but to discuss how to achieve a higher degree administration through training.

Knowledge may be acquired by using what are traditionally known as training systems or self-study, experience, attending training program etc. In this case, we will focus specifically on effectiveness of such training. As everyone has understood the importance of training in order to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job. Job and organizational requirement are not static, they are changed from time to time in view of various advancement and change in awareness of the management system.

Furthermore, the training is such a factor which is managed externally, since it is sole responsibility of employee to carry out the task they have been assigned after the training.  Management sets up the team as a work unit (it designs the team task, chooses its members, sets out basis rules for attaining goals,) Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is a short-term educational process and utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Dale S. Beach defines training as the organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skill for a definite purpose. In other words, training improves, changes, moulds the employee’s knowledge, skill, behavior, aptitude, and attitude towards the requirements of the job and organization. Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization, to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by a particular job and organization. Thus, training bridges the differences between job requirements and employee’s present specifications.

The importance of human resource management to a large extent depends on human resource development. Trained employees would be a valuable asset to an organization. Organizational efficiency, productivity, progress and development to a greater extent depend on training. Organizational objectives like viability, stability and growth can be achieved through training. Training is important as it constitutes significant part of management control. Training & Development was used to assess the extent to which the training function is being effectively managed. This function contributes to growth and development of employee competency and motivation. If training has to effective it has to be need-based, well-planned, evaluated monitored and useful. Both the senior line officers and the staff become partners in ensuring the effectiveness of training. Training effectiveness comprises four variables viz (I) Induction training; (II) Need based training; (III) Planned training and (IV) Utilization.

OBJECTIVES

  • To examine the effectiveness of training in the municipal offices.
  • To compare and analyze the opinion of Chief Officer or we can say as City Manager on the effectiveness of training in sample unit.
  • To test statistically whether there is significant difference in the opinion of Chief Officer or City Manager regarding effectiveness of training in municipal offices.

METHODOLOGY

UNIVERSE

Municipal Administration is a part of Urban Development in the Ministry of Urban Development in Government of Maharashtra. Municipal Administration is basically meant for to provide the basic amenities to citizens of urban area, as we all know that urbanization is inevitable and is directly linked with the process of economic development. It is also noted that stage is set to experience a rapid pace of urban growth to transform India into an urban majority society sooner than expected. The preliminary results from recent census( 2011) show a positive trend towards a rapid pace of urbanization indicating a highest ever increase in the census town and reversal of decline in the net increase in the percentage point in the level of urbanization over previous decades occurring since 1981. As the Municipal Administration is a statutory authority functioning under the Maharashtra Municipal Act, 1965. There are two wings of Municipal administration one is the part of elected members and other is Executive functionary appointed by the Government called Chief Officer or City Manager, other Officers of Municipal Council. And subordinate staff. All over the Maharashtra State as it wide so Nashik region Municipal Councils are the universe of the proposed study.

SELECTION OF SAMPLE & RESPONDENTS

This is basically an empirical study about the measuring the training effectiveness, based on the perception of employees/officers working in Municipal Councils selected for this purpose. Municipal Councils is large one spread all over the Maharashtra. So, we are constrained to limit our study to Nasik Region only. The details of manpower are as under.  Our respondents would be officers / employees posted in Municipal offices of Nasik Region only.

Table 4 reveals that there are three levels of administration hierarchy management in Municipal Councils viz; (i) Lower level of management; (ii) Middle level of management and (iii) Higher level of management. While lower level of management comprises officials of cadre of senior clerk and below; middle level of management comprises officers of cadre of Administrative & Tax Officers and higher level of management consists of Chief Officer of Municipal Council. There are 3 (2.18%) officers at higher level; 17 (12.31%) officers at middle level and 118 (85.51%) officers/officials at lower level out of total 138 respondents in the Municipal Councils in Nasik Region. So, we have to again satisfy with a lower number of respondents at the level of higher management due to reluctance on their part to share adequate information.

DATA COLLECTION

The paper is based on both the types of data viz; primary as well secondary. The secondary data is mainly collected through the annual reports of the Municipal Council selected for the study. The primary data is collected through a questionnaire administered on Officers/employees of Municipal Council working in Nasik Region. According to questionnaire first section was meant to collect personal information about respondents regarding their age, qualifications, experience, pay scale and hierarchy level etc. in the Municipal Council. The second part is related to the training effectiveness and its various sub-systems such as (i) Induction training; (ii) Need based training; (iii) Planned training and (iv) Utilization.

SCORING PATTERN There are five choices for each statement on the basis of Five- Point- Scale.

INDUCTION TRAINING: – There are 6 statements in total. Thus the score below 12 exhibits that this training function is ineffectively’ performed in the organization; score 12-18 effectively’ and score above 18 Highly effectively’.

NEED BASED TRAINING: – There are eight statements in all. So the score below 16 denotes ineffectively; score 16-24 effectively’ and score above 24 highly effectively’ performed in the Organization.

PLANNED TRAINING: – There are two statements in total. So the score below 4 explains that this training function is performed  Ineffectively’ score 4-6  Effectively’ and score above 6 Highly effectively’.

UTILISATION: – There are four statements in all. So the score below 8 means that this function is performed In effectively’ in the organization; score 8-12 Effectively’ and score above 12 Highly effectively.’

TOOLS OF ANALYSIS The following statistical tools would be applied for the purpose of analyzing the collected data:

‘t’ Test ‘t’ Test would be used to determine whether the mean of a sample deviates significantly from the population mean. The value of the‘t’ – test is calculated as under:

Where

x = the mean of the sample

u = Populations mean

n = the sample size

S = the Standard deviation of the sample.

If the calculated value of‘t’ exceeds the table value at desired level of confidence, this shows that difference between x and u is significant. On the other hand, if the calculated value of  ‘t’ is less than the table value at desired level of confidence, the difference between x and u is not statistically significant and hence the sample might have been drawn from a population with mean = u. In addition to above some other statistical tools such as Mean, Standard deviation, Standard Error and Percentage have also been used in accordance with the requirement of the subject matter and the nature of inference to be drawn.

DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

Here, in this paper an attempt has been made to study as to how the training effectiveness is being performed in the Municipal Councils. The primary data has been analyzed on the basis of placement, hierarchy, qualification and experience of the officers/officials of Municipal Administration. Training effectiveness sub-systems are being analyzed in Tables No. 7, 8, 9 and 10 according to placement, hierarchy, qualification and length of experience of officers/officials of Municipal Councils.

PLACEMENT BASED ANALYSIS

Table 7 reveals mean score values along with SD and ‘t’ values in connection with four variables explained to begin with, According to placement of the personnel of Municipal Council i.e. (i) Head Quarters (ii) A Class Municipal Office (iii) B Class Municipal Office (iv) C Class Municipal Council office. Regarding Induction Training variable, the mean values along with‘t’ values are 14.8 (t-.96); 15.99 (t-1.78); 17.18 (t-2.61) and 12.98 (t-2.01) for the four categories of personnel respectively. The mean values indicate that this training function is effective in the Municipal Councils as perceived by all the four classes of personnel.

The ‘t’ values indicate that the mean score value pertaining to the officers of Head Quarter’s and A class Municipal Office does not differ from the grand mean value. However, the mean score value for other two groups i.e. B Class Municipal Office and C class Municipal Councils offices differs from the grand mean value. So this variable is done effectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by the officers/officials of all the four categories. However, there is still room for improvement i.e. to be highly effective. It is worth noting that the perception of Headquarters, A class, B Class and C Class Municipal Councils Chief Officers is in harmony with that of population as evident by ‘t’ values.

In respect of Need Based Training variable, the mean values along with ‘t’ values are 18.01 (t-1.31); 18.95 (t-1.40); 16.06 (t-0.18) and 14.15 (t-1.98) for the Headquarters, A Class Municipal Council Office, B Class Municipal Office and C Class Municipal Council  office respectively. The mean values indicate that this function is performing effectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by the personnel of Headquarters, A Class Municipal Council Office, B Class Municipal Office and C Class Municipal Council  office However, the function is discharged effectively as perceived by the personnel of C class Municipal Council  office.

The ’t’ values show that means score values for all the four classes of personnel does not differ from the grand mean value. Thus, this variable is done effectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by the personnel of Headquarters, A Class Municipal Council Office, and B Class Municipal Office, However, the personnel of C Class Municipal Council office view that the job is done ineffectively.

But none considers that the Municipal Council is highly effective in performing this function. So, Municipal Council has to travel long distance in order to achieve the goal i.e. being highly effective in this regard. It is satisfying that the perception of all the four categories of personnel is in conformity with that of population as evident by t’ values.

In connection with Planned Training variable, the mean values along with’t’ values are 4.15 (t-1.35); 4.67 (t-0.99); 4.17 (t- 0.98) and 3.76 (t-1.85) for the four classes of personnel respectively. The mean values indicate that this function does not perform effectively in the Municipal Council as viewed by the personnel of Headquarters, A Class Municipal Council Office, and B Class Municipal Council Office. However, the function is performed ineffectively in the Municipal Council as perceived by the personnel of C Class Municipal Council office.

The’t’ values indicate that the mean score value pertaining to all the four classes of officers does not differ from the grand mean value. So, none holds the view that Municipal Councils is highly effective in discharging this function. Thus, the Municipal Councils needs to do much more in order to be highly effective in performing this function. It is satisfying that the views of all the four categories of officers are in agreement with that of population as witnessed by t’ values.

In respect of Utilization variable, the mean values along with’t’ values are 8.96 (t-2.12); 7.20 (t-1.29); 7.66 (t-0.98) and 6.98 (t-3.65) for the four groups of officers respectively. The mean values indicate that this function is performed effectively in the Municipal Council as perceived by the personnel of Head Quarters. However, the function is performed ineffectively as viewed by the personnel of other three categories. The ‘t’ values indicate that the mean score value pertaining to the officers of Head Quarter’s and personnel of C Class Municipal Councils  office differs from the grand mean value.

However, the mean score values for other two categories of officers viz; A Class Municipal Office and B Class Municipal Office do not differ from the grand mean value. In fact, the crux of the problem is that the training is not being utilized properly in the Municipal Council. So, Municipal Council should take necessary steps to utilize the training in effective manner. It is bit disturbing that the perception of officers of Head Quarter’s and personnel of C Class Municipal Council office differs from that of population as proved by‘t’ values.

HIERARCHY BASED ANALYSIS

Table 8 exhibits the mean score values along with SD and ‘t’ values regarding four variables explained to begin with, according to the Hierarchy level of personnel viz. (i) Lower level of management (ii) Middle level of management and (iii) Higher level of management.

Regarding Induction Training variable, the mean values along with ‘t’ values are 13.98(t-1.47); 14.89(t-1.12) and 19.95(t-9.47) for the lower; middle and higher level of management respectively. The mean values show that this function is performed effectively in the Municipal Council as viewed by the officers of lower and middle level management. However, the job is done in highly effective manner in the Municipal Councils t as perceived by the higher level of management. The‘t’ values indicates that the mean score value for the lower and middle level of management does not differ from the grand mean value.

However, the mean score value pertaining to the Higher level of management differs from the grand mean value. So, Municipal Councils can improve a bit or at least maintain its present position in this regard. The views of higher level of managers only are not in harmony with that of population as evidenced by‘t’ values. It appears that they have inflated opinion in this respect.

In connection with Need Base Training variables, the mean values along with’t’ values are 14.90(t-2.01); 16.98(t-1.97) and 23.91(t-4.32) for the three hierarchy level of management respectively. The mean values indicate that this function is performed ineffectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by the lower level of management. However, the function is discharged effectively as perceived by the managers of middle level. But the Job is done in highly effective manner in the Municipal Councils as opined by the higher level of management. The ’t’ values show that the mean score value for the managers of lower and higher level of management differs from the grand mean value.

However, the mean score value pertaining to the middle level of management does not differ from the grand mean value. So under such situation, it is very difficult to draw out inference about the extent the need-based-training is imparted in the Municipal Council Department. However, there is no harm if Municipal Councils takes steps in identifying and, accelerates need-based-training program in future for the employees. The views of lower and higher level managers are not in agreement with that of population as shown by t’ values.

In respect of Planned Training variable, the mean score values along with’t’ values are 4.02(t-0.98); 4.06(t-0.05) and 7.04(t-6.42) for the three hierarchy level of management respectively. The mean values indicate that this function is discharged effectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by the managers of lower and middle level management. However, the function is performed highly effective in the Municipal Council Department as perceived by the higher level of management.

The’t’ values show that the mean score for the lower and middle level of management does not differ from the grand mean value. However, the mean score value pertaining to the managers of higher level management differs from the grand mean value. So let the Municipal Councils maintain its present position in this regard. The perceptions of higher level of management only are in sharp contrast to that of population as proved by  t’ values. It seems they might have inflated their views in this regard.

In connection with Utilization variable, the mean values along with ’t’ values are 6.69(t-5.01); 10.23(t-3.69) and 10.34(t-1.76) for the lower, middle and higher level of management respectively. The mean values indicate that this function is performed ineffectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by the managers of lower level management. However, the function is discharged effectively as viewed by the other two hierarchy levels of management i.e. middle and higher level of management. The ’t’ values show that the mean score values for the lower and middle level management differs from the grand mean value.

However, the mean score value pertaining to the higher level of management does not differ from the grand mean value. Thus, this variable is discharged ineffectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by the lower level of management. However, the job is done effectively as perceived by the middle and higher level of management. But none considers that training is utilized in highly effective manner in the Municipal Councils .So it is better if Municipal Councils takes steps to see that training is utilized in an effective manner in the organization. The perceptions of lower and middle level managers are not in harmony with that of population as proved by t’ values.

QUALIFICATION BASED ANALYSIS

Table 9 reveals mean score values along with ’t’ values regarding four variables as explained to begin with, according to the qualification of personnel i.e. (i) Up to Graduates ; (ii) Post Graduates and (iii) Professionals like B.E., B. Tech., MBA, CA, ICWA, CS etc.

In respect of Induction Training variable, the mean values along with ’t’ values are 12.67(t-2.78); 15.54(t-2.28) and 15.02(t-.81) for the three classes of managers respectively. The mean values indicate that this function is performed effectively in the Municipal Councils as perceived by personnel effectively in the Municipal Councils as perceived by performed of all the four groups. The ’t’ values show that the mean score values for the managers of categories (i) and (ii) differ from the managers of categories (i) and (ii) differ from the grand mean value.

However, the mean score values pertaining to the personnel of class (iii) do not differ from the grand mean value. Thus, the function, Induction Training’ of training effectiveness is conducted effectively in the organization as viewed by the managers of all the three categories. However, none is of the opinion that the Municipal Councils is highly effective in discharging this function. So, there is still room for improvement in this respect. It is bit disturbing that the perception of I and II categories of managers is not in harmony with that of population as evident by‘t’ values.

In connection with Need Based Training variable, the mean values along with’t’ values are14.28 (t-2.01), 17.12(t-2.59) and 15.17(t-1.07) for the three classes of managers respectively. The mean values indicate that this training function is discharged ineffectively in the organization as perceived by the managers of groups (i) and (iii). However, the function is done effectively as viewed by the personnel of category (ii). The ’t’ values show that the mean score values pertaining to the managers of classes (i) and (ii) differ from the grand mean value.

However, the mean score value for iii category managers of do not differ from the grand mean value. Thus, there is every need for exploring the possibility of need-based-training for the employees in the Municipal Councils. It is bit disturbing that view of I and II categories of managers are not in agreement with that of population as t’ values prove.

In respect of Planned Training variable, the mean score values along with’t’ values are 3.67(t-2.12); 4.29(t-1.02) and 4.13(t-.04) for the three categories of personnel respectively. The mean values show that this function is done ineffectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by the managers of group (i). However, the function is discharged effectively as perceived by the personnel of groups (ii) and (iii). The’t’ values indicate that the mean score value for the managers of I category differs from the grand mean value. However, the mean score values pertaining to the managers of II and III groups do not differ from the grant mean value. So, it can be inferred that there is need to improve planning aspect of training in the Municipal Councils. It is better if training function is performed in planned way rather in haphazard manner.

The views of III category of managers only are in contrast to that of population as proved by‘t’ values. In connection with Utilization variable, the mean values along with’t’ values are 6.84(t-1.19), 7.23(t-.05) and 7.67(t-1.21) for the three categories of managers respectively. The mean values indicate that this training function is performed ineffectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by all the three groups of personnel. The’t’ values show that the mean score value for each of the three categories of personnel does not differ from the grand mean value. Thus, the Utilization’ aspect of training effectiveness is ineffectiveness in the organization as perceived by the managers of all the three categories. This is really somewhat unpleasing situation. So, Municipal Councils should take necessary steps for the utilization of training effectively in the organization. It is satisfying that the perceptions of all the three categories of managers match with that of population as witnessed by t’ values.

EXPERIENCE BASED ANALYSIS

Table 10 depicts the mean score values along with SD, SE and ‘t’ values regarding three variables explaining begin with, according to the length of Experience of the personnel of Municipal Council Department i.e. (i) Low experienced (Below 8 years); (ii) Medium experienced (Between 8-18 years) and (iii) Highly experienced (Above 18 years) personnel.

In respect of Induction Training variable, the mean values along with’t’ values are 13.57(t-1.96); 14.57(t-.04) and 14.74(t-1.29) for the managers of three categories respectively. The mean values indicate that this training function is performed effectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by all the three category of personnel. The’t’ values show that the mean score value pertaining to all the three categories of managers doesn’t differ from the grand mean value. So, the Induction Training’ aspect of training effectiveness is done effectively in the Municipal Councils as perceived by all the three categories of managers.

However, there is still room for improvement i.e. being highly effective in this regard. So let the Municipal Councils maintain its present position in discharging this function. It is also satisfying that the perception of all the three classes of managers is in conformity with that of population as proved by t’ values.

In respect of Need Based Training variable, the mean values along with’t’ values are 15.01(t-2.09); 16.13(t-.40) and 17.03(t-1.24) for the managers of three groups respectively. The mean values indicate that this function is done ineffectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by the group of managers. However, the function is discharged effectively as perceived by the personnel of (ii) and (iii) categories. The’t’ values show that the mean score value for the managers of I Category differs from the grand mean value.

However, the mean score value pertaining to the II and III groups of personnel does not differ from the grand mean value. So, none is of the view that the Municipal Councils is highly effective in discharging this function. Thus, Municipal Councils needs to do much more in order to strengthen need-based-training for employees in the organization. The perception of I category of managers only differs from that of population as t’ value proves.

In respect of Planned Training variable, the mean scores along with’t’ values are 3.76(t-2.03); 4.23(t-.79) and 4.12(t-.29) for the three classes of personnel respectively. The mean values show that this function is performed ineffectively in the Municipal Councils as perceived by the managers of class (i). However, the function is discharged effectively as viewed by the personnel of classes (ii) and (iii). The’t’ values indicate that the mean score value pertaining to I category of managers differs from the grand mean value. However, the mean score values for the managers of second and third groups do not differ from the grand mean value. So, offices need to improve it in this regard. The perception of I category of managers only differs from that of population as t’ value proves.

In respect of Utilization variable, the mean values along with’t’ values are 6.98(t-1.09); 7.34(t-.74) and 7.43(t-.17) for the managers of three categories respectively. The mean values indicate that the function is discharged ineffectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by all the three grouping manager. The’t’ values show that the mean score value for the each of the two categories of personnel does not differ from the grand mean value. Thus, the function, Utilization’ of training effectiveness is ineffective in the organization as viewed by the managers of all the three categories.

This is reason enough for Municipal Councils to think over as to how training can be utilized in a highly effective manner. It is good that the views of all the three categories of managers are in agreement with that of population as evident by ’t’ values.

 

REFERENCES

Bhatia SK (2009) Training and Development ‘Deep & Deep Publication’ New Delhi

Dale S.Beach, (1980), Personnel, Macmillan, New York, p.290.

Rao, Subba, P., (2010), Management: Theory and Practice, Himalaya Publishing House, New Delhi, and PP324-350.

Singh, B.R., (1982), “Designing Training and Development Systems”, Indian Journal of Training and Development, July-Sept. and Oct.-Dec., PP. 1-6.

 

"I appeared for 4 successive interviews for a job position at a media company. The very
"We have recruited a guy in our company and found that he edited his Btech
Can you challenge your employer at the Court of law if you were terminated for
"I completed MCA in 2009, after that I did some teaching job and tried for
"I am working in a manufacturing industry as a Sr. HR Officer. I have recently

  • D M Marathe

    Can I have the questionaire used for analysis?