The world is changing. Population changes are becoming extremely significant to management personnel in organizations. These changes can be viewed as changes in (1) consumers, (2) factors of production, and (3) participants in society. The increase in the size of consumer markets and the segmentation of markets into strata (age, ethnic) are obvious changes. Consumption patterns vary and are in constant states of change, and the manager continually searches for market information to help in making sound decisions. Values, expectations, and aspirations are continually being transformed.
Population increases are favorable when viewed as expansion in consumer markets and greater availability of human resources. There are many instances, however, where the population changes are not seen as positive aspects of societal growth. When the increase in numbers increases density, unemployment, poverty, there is a question about the value of increase. The population explosion is a problem to society varies among countries, but in the future management must be aware of the impact of urban concentrations of people in all areas.
Some environmental changes relevant to management are pollution and social changes in the cities. Pollution (air, water, land, noise) seems to be the cost of industrialization and the exploitation of the resources of the country. What makes the topic critical in the last quarter of the twentieth century is that many ecologists (scientists who study humanityâ€™s relationship to its environment) foresee the possible destruction of irreplaceable resources. Managers in organization as well as the professional and academic communities are now starting to show interest in the subject.
The crisis in the cities and urban centers increasingly affects management. The interdependence of the many factors of society makes one problem the problem of many. Thus management in the 1990s may become oriented to its sociological dimensions.
The increasing popularity of management is encouraging but it also raises conflicts in the minds of serious, sophisticated students. Is management a simple, common sense field? To whom should one listen â€“ The writers of best sellers? Famous, successful, chief executive officers who rose to greatness in a different, earlier period? The writers who continually introduce new, catchy buzz words? The dilemma of a manager or management student is to who should they listen — The scholarly writing of pure researchers or the authors of the large number of textbooks which have continually been made more colorful and readable or Management consultants.
One suggested approach in balancing this mixture of pure intellectual theories and their practical application by men of action was offered by Charles Summer, Jr, several decades ago. In fact, the title of this article is an example of an earlier buzz word, Managerial Mind which after achieving great popularity was discarded and thus isnâ€™t included in the revised list of buzz words. Does the fact that an old buzz word is no longer popular mean that its idea is less important than a hot new one?
Modern American gives high status to â€œnewâ€ whereas older culture, such as the Japanese and Chinese, give high status to ideas and plans that have lasted hundreds of years. Modern society is experiencing more changes in this decade than it experienced over previous centuries, and modern managers must keep up with these changes. But, a solid a manager should develop the wisdom to hold on to lasting essentials while adapting.
Customers increasingly expect higher quality and service and some customization. They are more and more time-starved and want more convenience. They perceive fewer real product differences and show less brand loyalty. They can obtain extensive product information from the Internet and other sources, which permit them to shop more intelligently. They are showing greater sensitivity in their search for value.