Every manager does many things that are not managing. He may spend most of his time on them. A sales manager makes a statistical analysis or placates an important customer. A foreman repairs a tool or fills in a production report. A manufacturing manager designs a new plant payout or tests materials. A company president works tough the details of a bank loan or negotiates a big contract or spends dreary hours presiding at a dinner in honor of long service employees. All these things pertain to a particular function. All are necessary, and have to be done well.
But they are apart from that work which every manager does whatever his function or activity, whatever his rank and position, work which is common to all managers and peculiar to them. The best proof is that we can apply to the job of the manger the systematic analysis of Scientific Management. We can isolate that which a man does because he is a manager. We can divide it into the basic constituent operations. And a man can improve his performance as a manager of these constituent motions.
There are five such basic operations in the work of the manager. Together they result in the integration of resources into a living and growing organism.
A manager, in the first place, sets objectives. He determines what the objectives should be. He determines what the goals in each area of objectives should be, and decides what has to be done to reach these objectives. He makes the objectives effective by communicating them to the people whose performance is needed to attain them.
Secondly a manager organizes. He analyzes the activities, decisions and relations needed. He classifies the work. He divides to into manageable activities. He further divides the activities into manageable jobs. He groups these units and jobs into an organization structure. He selects people for the management of these units and for jobs to be done.
Next a manager motivates and communicates. He makes a team out of the people that are responsible for various jobs. He does that through the practices with which he manages. He does it in his own relation to the men he manages. He does it through incentives and rewards for successful work. He does it through his promotion policy. And he does it through constant communication, both from the manager to his subordinate, and from the subordinate to the manager.
The fourth basic element in the work of the manager is the job of measurements. The manager establishes measuring yardsticks and there are few factors as important to the performance of the organization and of every man in it. He sees to it each man in the organization has measurements available to him which are focused on the performance of the whole organization and which at the same time focus on to work of the individual and help him do it. He analyzes performance, appraises it and interprets it and gain. In every other area of his work he communicates both the meaning of the measurements and their findings to his subordinates as well as to his superiors. Finally, a manager develops people. The way he manages he makes it easy or difficult for them to develop themselves he directs people or misdirects them. He brings out what is in them or he stifles them. He strengthens their integrity or he corrupts them. He trains them to stand upright and strong.
Every manager does these things when he manages whether he knows it or not, he may do them well, he may do them desolately. But he always does them.