OPERATIVE FUNCTIONS OF HRM
The operative functions of personnel management are related to specific activities of personnel management viz., employment, development, compensation and relations. All these functions are interacted by managerial functions. Further these functions are to be performed in conjunction with management functions.
It is the first operative function of HRM. Employment is concerned with securing and employing the people possessing required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve the organizational objectives. It covers the functions such as job analysis, human resources planning, recruitment, selection, placement, induction and internal mobility.
Job Analysis: It is the process of study and collection of information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. It includes:
1. Collection of data, information, facts and ideas relating to various aspects of jobs including men, machines and materials.
2. Preparation of job description, job specification, job requirements and employee specification which help in identifying the nature, levels and quantum of human resources.
3. Providing the guides, plans and basis for job design and for all operative functions of HRM.
Human Resources Planning:
It is a process for determination and assuring that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times, performing jobs which would meet the needs of the organization and which would provide satisfaction for the individuals involved. It involves
* Estimation of present and future requirement and supply of human resources basing on objectives and long range plans of the organization.
* Calculation of net human resources requirement based on present inventory of human resources.
* Taking steps to mould, change, and develop the strength of existing employees in the organization so as to meet the future human resources requirements.
* Preparation of action programs to get the rest of human resources from outside the organization and to develop the human resources of existing employees.
It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. It deals with:
(a) Identification of existing sources of applicants and developing them.
(b) Creation / Identification of new sources of applicants.
(c) Stimulating the candidates to apply for jobs in the organization.
(d) Striking a balance between internal and external sources.
It is the process of ascertaining the qualifications, experience, skill, knowledge etc., of an applicant with a view to appraising his / her suitability to a job appraising.
This function includes:
(a) Framing and developing application blanks.
(b) Creating and developing valid and reliable testing techniques.
(c) Formulating interviewing techniques.
(d) Checking of references.
(e) Setting up medical examination policy and procedure.
(f) Line managerâ€™s decision.
(g) Sending letters of appointment and rejection.
(h) Employing the selected candidates who report for duty.
Placement: It is the process of assigning the selected candidate with the most suitable job in terms of job requirements. It is matching of employees specifications with job requirements. This function includes:
(a) Counseling the functional managers regarding placement.
(b) Conducting follow-up study, appraising employee performance in order to determine employeeâ€™s adjustment with the job.
(c) Correcting misplacements, if any.
Induction and Orientation: Induction and orientation are the techniques by which a new employee is rehabilitated in the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies, purposes and people etc., of the organization.
(a) Acquaint the employee with the company philosophy, objectives, policies, career planning and development, opportunities, product, market share, social and community standing, company history, culture etc.
(b) Introduce the employee to the people with whom he has to work such as peers, supervisors and subordinates.
(c) Mould the employee attitude by orienting him to the new working and social environment.