ACTUAL DECISION MAKING IN ORGANIZATIONS
Decision makers in organizations must be rational in taking the decisions. For this they will have to carefully assess problems, identify all relevant criteria, use their creativity to identify all viable alternatives and painstakingly evaluate every alternative to find an optimal choice. Decision makers with little experience, decision makers faced with simple problems that have few alternative courses of action, or when the cost of searching out and evaluating alternatives is low, the rational model provides a fairly accurate description of the decision process. But such situations are the exception.
Most decisions in the real world donâ€™t follow the rational model. People are usually content to find an acceptable or reasonable solution to their problem rather than an optimal one. As such, decision makers generally make limited use of their creativity. Choices tend to be confined to the neighborhood of the problem symptom and to the neighborhood of the current alternative. One expert in decision making has expressed the view that most significant decisions are made by judgment, rather than by a defined prescriptive model.
The following reviews a large body of evidence to provide a more accurate description of how most decisions in organizations are actually made.
Considering the choice of a college for taking a course, many might not have considered all possible viable alternatives. One must carefully identify all the criteria that were important in raking a decision. Evaluate each alternative against the criteria in order to find the optimal college. Few people made their college choice this way, instead of optimizing the choice for most was probably satisfaction..
When faced with a complex problem, most people respond by reducing the problem to a level at which it can be readily understood. This is because the limited information-processing capability of human beings makes it impossible to assimilate and understand all the information necessary to optimize. So people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient.
Because the capacity of the human mind for formulating and solving complex problems is far too small to meet the requirements for full rationality, individuals operate within the confines of bounded rationality. They construct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity. Individuals can then behave rationally within the limits of the simple model.
Once a problem is identified, the search for criteria and alternatives begins. But the list of criteria is likely to be far from exhaustive. The decision maker will identify a limited list made up of the more conspicuous choices. These are the choices that are easy to find and that tend to be highly visible. In most cases, they will represent familiar criteria and previously tried-and-true solutions. Once this limited set of alternatives is identified, the decision maker will begin reviewing them.
The review will not be comprehensive and not all alternatives will be carefully evaluated. Instead, the decision maker will begin with alternatives that differ only in a relatively small degree from the choice currently in effect. Following along familiar and well-worn paths, the decision maker proceeds to review alternatives only until he or she identifies an alternative that is â€œgood enoughâ€? â€“one that meets an acceptable level of performance. The first alternative that meets the â€œgood enoughâ€? criterion ends the search. So the final solution represents a satisficing choice rather than an optimal one.
One of the more interesting aspects of bounded rationality is that the order in which alternatives are considered is critical in determining which alternative is selected. Remember, in the fully rational decision-making model, all alternatives are considered; the initial order in which they are evaluated is irrelevant. Every potential solution would get a full and complete evaluation. But this isnâ€™t the case with bounded rationality. The â€˜satisfactory & sufficientâ€™ choice will be the first acceptable one the decision maker encounters assuming that a problem has more than one potential solution.
Decision makers tend to use simple and limited models. They typically begin by identifying alternatives that are obvious ones with which they are familiar, and those not too far from the status quo. The solutions that depart least from the status quo and meet the decision criteria are those most likely to be selected. A unique and creative alternative may present an optimizing solution to the problem. It is unlikely to be chosen because an acceptable solution will be identified well before the decision maker is required to search very far beyond the status quo.