TECHNIQUES OF DATA COLLECTION FOR JOB ANALYSIS
There are several techniques that can be used for the purposes of collection of data. The important among them are:
2. Direct observations
3. Maintenance of long records
5. Critical incident technique etc
In practice, these techniques may be used individually, or in possible combination.
There are two types of interviews which can be used for collection of data for job analysis, viz., individual interviews (with groups of employees who do the same job) and supervisory interviews (with one or more supervisors who are thoroughly knowledgeable about the job being analyzed) The interviewer has to collect accurate and complete data and information by creating favorable attitude among employees and supervisors. There are several basic attitudes and techniques that will serve to secure maximum of accurate and complete information. These attitudes and techniques will also help to reduce the natural suspicion of both employee and supervisor toward the interviewer. Important among them are:
* The interviewer should introduce himself so that the workers know him, who is, and why he is there?
* He has to show a sincere interest in the worker and the job being analyzed.
* He should not try to tell the employee how to do the job.
* He has to try to talk to the employees and supervisors in their own languages.
* He should not confuse the work with the worker.
* He has to do a complete job study within the objectives of the programs.
* He has to verify the job information obtained by consulting the other employees doing the same job.
Direct observation is particularly useful in jobs that consists primarily of observable physical activity like draftsman, mechanics etc. One approach to this method is by observing the worker on the job during a complete work cycle. In this process, notes should be taken regarding all the job activities observed. The next stage is interviewing the worker and getting the additional information from him. The other approach is to observe and interview simultaneously.
Maintenance of Long Records
In this technique the workers are asked to maintain and keep daily records or list of activities they are doing on that day. For every activity he engages in the employee records the activity in the list given. This technique provides comprehensive job information and it is much useful when it is supplemented with subsequent interviews.
Many companies use job analysis questionnaires to secure information on job requirement relating to typical duties and tasks, tools and equipments used etc.
Critical Incident Technique
The above techniques are useful for the purposes of gathering data, for making recruitment and selection decisions. In most cases, the utility of the above techniques unchecked and as such they are not entirely scientific.
The critical incident technique for job analysis is especially useful for scientific analysis, and selection research. In this technique, incidents are short examples of successful or unsuccessful job behavior. After many incidents are collected they are classified into behavioral categories. These categories describe specific desired job behaviors and can be useful in recruitment and selection decisions. Further more the categories also include, a list of the specific behaviors that make the difference between effective and ineffective performance on the job. They, therefore, specify precisely what kinds of performance should be appraised. It is also useful for testing the effectiveness of the job description and job specification.
The job analysis information, thus collected is useful to the personnel department to prepare the forms detailing as job descriptions, job specification and job standard.
The above information of this article has given the guidelines and the concerned authority or manage can use them to suit their organizations and obtain information or data.