Job description is an important document which is basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job analysis. It serves to identify a job for consideration by other job analysts. It tells us what should be done, and why it is to be done, and where it should be performed.
Characteristics of Good Job Description
Earnest Dale developed the following hints for writing the job description:
1. The job description should indicate the scope and nature of the work including all important relationships.
2. The job description should be clear regarding the work of the position, duties etc.
3. More specific words should be selected to show (a) the kind of work, (b) the degree of complexity, (c) the degree of skill required, (d) the extent to which problems are standardized, (e) the extent of workerâ€™s responsibility for each phase of the work, and (f) the degree and type of accountability. Action words such as analyze, gather, plan, confirm, deliver, maintain, supervise and recommend should be used.
4. Supervisory responsibility should be shown to the incumbents. Brief and accurate statements should be used in order to accomplish the purpose.
5. Utility of the description in meeting the basic requirements should be checked from the extent of understanding the job by reading the job description by a new employee.
The Content of Job Description
The job description normally contains the information on the following lines:
* Job title
* Organizational location of the job.
* Supervision given and received.
* Materials, tools, machinery and equipment worked with
* Designated of the immediate superiors and subordinates
* Salary levels: Pay, DA, other allowances, bonus, incentive wage, method of payment, hours of work, shift, break.
* Complete list of duties performed separated according to daily, weekly, monthly and casual, estimates time to be spent on each duty.
* Definition of unusual terms
* Conditions of work: Location, time, speed of work, accuracy, health hazards, accident hazards.
* Training and Development facilities
* Promotional chances and channels
* Model of Job Description is given.
Major Steps of Job Description
Job analyst has to write the job description after consulting the worker and the supervisor. After writing the preliminary draft, the job analyst has to get further comments and criticism from the worker and supervisor before preparing the final draft. The following modes may be used in writing job description
(a) Get the questionnaire filled in by the immediate supervisor of the employee.
(b) Job analyst has to complete the job description form by observing the actual work being done by the employee.
(c) All the information pertaining to the job should be secured from the worker.
The job analyst has to finalize the job description and write the final draft by using any one or a combination of two or more of the above methods. The job description should be reviewed and updated after the final daft is prepared.
Keeping the Job description Up-to-date
Job requirements have been undergoing continuous change. The job analyst have to secure the information about the change as and when it is reported or when a grievance is ventilated claiming that a given job should be reclassified into a higher group or class carrying the higher rate of pay. The job analyst has to check the information that is received and he has to change the job description accordingly.
The other important sub-system of job analysis is Job Specification (example given under)
(a) Job Grade: Middle Management
(b) Job Title: Credit Manager
(c) Reporting to: Regional Manager
(d) Definition of Job Purpose: To be a link between the branch managers and regional manager in appraising credit proposals
(e) Definition of Job Duties:
1. Receiving credit proposals processed by field officers at the branch level with specific remarks of the branch manager.
2. Evaluating the proposals from the lines of technical feasibility, commercial viability, financial soundness etc.
3. Securing additional information required from the applicant.
4. Visiting the industry/field before taking final decision.
5. Making final decision and informing the same to all parties.
(f) Additional Responsibility Requirements:
1. Representing the bank in district development committees
2. Maintaining sound employee relations in his department.
(g) Extent and Limits of Authority
1. Finalizing the projects requiring the loan up to Rs. 30lakhs.
2. Finalizing the projects owned purely by private limited companies.
(h) Salary: Rs. 4,500 per month (Pay Rs. 3,500 + DA Rs. 300 + HRA Rs. 700)
(i) Working Conditions.
In this article we have given what all to be included in the job description with an example. In practice the concerned HR manager has to prepare such information sheet for each and every job with appropriate pay scale. Working conditions can include seating arrangement, mode of transport local or inland, welfare measures, designation, scope for higher responsibility etc.