Telling: Leaders identify problems, consider options, choose one solution and tell their followers what to do. Leaders may consider members’ views but members don’t participate directly in decision making leaders of this style may even use coercion.
Persuading: Leaders make decisions and try to persuade group members to accept them. They point out that they have considered the organization goals and the interests of group members. They even point out how members will benefit from carrying out the decision.
Consulting: Group members have opportunities to influence the decision making from the beginning. Leaders present problems and relevant background information. Leaders invite the group to suggest alternative action. Leaders then select the, most promising solution.
Participating: Leaders participate as members in the discussion and agree in advance to carry out whatever decision the group makes.
Delegating: Leaders define the boundaries within which to solve problems or accomplish tasks. Then they turn it over to the group to work out solutions or to implement the tasks.
Basic knowledge and information that managers as a leader must have to function effectively or need to use in making decisions and taking action:
Command of Basic Facts: Successful managers (leader) know what’s what in their organization. They have a command of such basic facts as goals and plans (long ands short term) product knowledge, who’s who in the organization, the roles and relationships between departments, their, own job and what’s expected of them. If they don’t have all this information at hard, they know where to get it when they need it.
Relevant Professional Knowledge: This quality includes technical knowledge, (e.g. production, technology) Marketing techniques, engineering knowledge, relevant legislation, sources of finance and knowledge of basic background management principles and theirs (e.g. planning organization and control).
Special Skills & Attributes that directly affect behavior and performance:
Continuing Sensitivity to Events: Successful manager’s sensitivity to events enables them to tune into what is going on around them. They open themselves up to hard information, (such as figures and facts) and to soft information (such as the feelings of others) Managers with this sensitivity respond appropriately to situations as they arise.
Pro-active Inclination to Respond Purposefully to Events: Effective managers have goals to achieve rather than merely responding to demand. They plan carefully in advance, but they also respond to emergencies. When making such responses, effective managers consider long term aims and goals. Less successful managers respond to pressures in relatively uncritical ways.
This ability also includes qualities such as seeing a job through, being dedicated, having a sense of mission and taking responsibility for things that happen rather than passing the buck.
Mental Agility & Creativity: Mental agility includes the ability to grasp problems quickly, to think of several things at once to switch rapidly from one situation to another, to see quickly the whole situation (rather than ponderously plough through all its components) and to think on one’s facts. Because of the hectic nature of managerial work, successful managers must posses these abilities.
Creativity means the ability to come up with new responses and to recognize useful approaches. It involves not only having fresh ideas, but also the ability to recognize good ideas when they come from other sources.
Solving Analytical Problem: Decision/Judgment Making Skills: Managers concern themselves with decision making. Therefore, they must develop judgment making skills, including the ability to cope with uncertainty. They also need to strike a balance between allowing subjective feelings to guide them without completely throwing out objective logic.
Social skills & Abilities: Managers need inter personal skills to communicate, delegate, negotiate, resolve conflict, persuade, sell use and respond to authority and power.