Early Views of Motivation

Traditional Model:

Assumptions

1. Work is inherently distasteful to most people.
2. What they do is less important than what they earn for doing it.
3. Few want or can handle work that requires creativity, self-direction or self control.

Policies:

1. The manager should closely supervise and control subordinates.
2. He or she must break down tasks into simple, repetitive easily learned operations.
3. He or she must establish detailed work routines and procedures, and enforce these fairly but firmly.

Expectations:

1. People can tolerate work if the pay is decent and the boss is fair.
2. If tasks are simple enough and people are closely controlled, they will produce up to standard.

Human Relations Model:

Assumptions

1. People want to feel useful and important.
2. People want to belong and to be recognized as individuals
3. These needs are more important than money in motivating people to work.

Policies

1. The manager should make each worker feel useful and important.
2. He or she should keep subordinates in keep subordinates informed and listen to their objections to his or her plans.
3. The manager should allow subordinates to exercise some self direction and self control on routine matters.

Expectations:

1. Sharing information with subordinates and involving them in routine decisions will satisfy their basic needs to belong and to feel important.
2. Satisfying these needs will improve morale and reduce resistance to formal authority – subordinates will willingly cooperate.

Human Resources Model:

Assumptions

1. Work is not inherently distasteful. People want to contribute to meaningful goals that they have helped establish.
2. Most people can exercise far more creativity, self direction, and self-control than their present jobs demand.

Policies:

1. The manager should make use of underutilized human resources.
2. He or she must create an environment in which all members may contribute to the limits of their ability.
3. He or she must encourage full participation in important matters, continually broadening subordinate self direction and self control.

Expectations:

1. Expanding subordinate influence, self direction, and self control will lead to direct improvements in operating efficiency.
2. Work satisfaction may improve as a “by-product” of subordinates’ making full use of their resources.

The two factor theory of motivation: In the late 1950s, Fredrick Herzberg and his associates conducted a study of the job attitudes of 200 engineers and accountants. Herzberg placed responses in one of 16 categories: the factors on the right side of the figure were consistently related to job satisfaction; those on the left side to job dissatisfaction. From this research, Herzberg concluded that job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction arose from two separate sets of factors. This theory was termed the two factor theory.

Dissatisfiers (which he called “hygiene” factors) included salary, working conditions, and company policy all of which affected the context in which work was conducted The most important of these factors is company policy, which many individuals judge to be a major cause of inefficiency and ineffectiveness. Positive ratings for these factors did not lead to job satisfaction but merely to the absence of dissatisfaction.

Satisfiers (motivating factors) include achievement, recognition, responsibility and advancement – all related to the job content and the rewards of work performance.

Herzberg’s work was influential in the growth of job enrichment programs. This more complicated model of needs whereby both satisfiers and dissatisfiers can be present for a person – underscores how important it is that managers understand differences between human beings when designing motivational approaches. For evidence of how needs vary among people and over time, talk to your classmates, friends, colleagues at work, and professors about satisfiers and dissatisfiers in their lives and then do it again a year from now.