Clustering and the use of Psychographics

Segments based on psychographics evolve from a clustering of respondents based on their similarities with respect to activities, attitudes, interests, and opinions. To obtain such data, respondents are typically asked to indicate the extent to which they agree or disagree (using a 3 –, 4 –, 5 –, 6 –, or 10 – point scale) with a series of statements. The statements are listed in random order on the questionnaire, so that when they are read the respondents are not likely to discern any meaningful pattern. However, the statements are designed to measure specific attitudes, opinions or beliefs. Some sample statements that might be used to measure such things as price consciousness, fashion consciousness, self confidence, new brand trying, and enthusiasm for art can be shown to the field survey researcher. For each attitude, activity, belief, and so on that the researchers are trying to measure there will be several statements on the questionnaire.

Consumers who agree strongly with statements of the type shown would be categorized accordingly. Consumers are also asked to report their usage of the product or brands in question and various advertising media.

One psychographic study involved a national sample of approximately 4,000 men who were asked to respond to several hundred psychographic questions, as well as to questions concerned with product and service usage and exposure to media. A cluster analysis was applied to the responses to the psychographic questions. It indicated that the sample could be divided into eight relatively homogeneous groups – that is, there were eight groupings of respondents, and each group consisted of consumers who tended to answer a subset of the questions in the same way. After carefully studying the characteristics of each group, the researchers gave the groups the labels.

In this case researchers were interested in several different products and services. The consumption of each of these and the use of a number of magazines by the individuals in each of the eight psychographic groups are shown in a Table below.

Psychographic Variables and Sample Statements:

Psychographics Variables:
1. Price conscious
2. Fashion conscious
3. Self confidence
4. New brand trier
5. Arts enthusiast

Sample Statements

1. I shop a lot for specials
2. My outfits are usually of the latest style
3. I am more independent than most people
4. Often I buy a new brand just to see what it is like
5. I enjoy ballet.

Eight Male Psychographic Segments:

Group 1

The quiet family man (8 percent of total males)
He is a self sufficient man who wants to be left alone and is basically shy. He tries to be as little involved with community life as possible. His life revolves around the family, simple work, and television viewing. He has a marked fantasy life. As a shopper he is practical and less drawn to consumer goods and pleasures than other men. With low education and low economic status, he tends to be older than average.

Group 2

The traditionalist (16 percent of total males)
He is a man who feels secure, has self esteem, and follows conventional rules. He is proper and respectable, regards himself as altruistic and interested in the welfare of others. As a shopper he is conservative, likes popular brands and well known manufacturers.

With low education and low or middle socioeconomic status, he is a member of the oldest age group.

Group 3

The discontented man (13 percent of total sales)
He is a man who is likely to be dissatisfied with his work. He feels bypassed by life, dreams of better jobs, more money, and more security. He tends to be distrustful and socially aloof. As a buyer he is quite price conscious.

He is a member of the lowest education and lowest socioeconomic group and is generally older than average.

Group 4

The ethical highbrow (14 percent of total males)

This is a very concerned man, sensitive to people’s needs. Basically a puritan he is content with family life, friends and work and is interested in culture religion and social reform. As a consumer he is interested in quality, which may at times justify greater expenditure.

He is well educated, of middle or upper socio-economic status, and is middle aged or older.

Group 5

The pleasure oriented man (9 percent of total males)
He tends to emphasize his masculinity and rejects whatever appears to be soft or feminine. He views himself a leader among men.. Self centered he dislikes his work or job and seeks immediate gratification for his needs. He is an impulsive buyer, likely to buy products with a masculine image.

He has a low education, is of the lower socioeconomic class, and is middle aged or younger.

Group 6

The achiever (11 percent of total males)

This is likely to be a hardworking man, dedicated to success and all that it implies social prestige, power, and money. He is in favor of diversity and is adventurous about leisure time pursuits. He is stylish, likes good food, music and so on. As a consumer he is status conscious and a thoughtful and discriminating buyer.
He was a good education, high socioeconomic status, and is young.

Group 7

The he-man (19 percent of total males)

He is gregarious likes action, seeks an exciting and dramatic life. He thinks of himself as capable and dominant and tends to be more of a bachelor than a family man, even after marriage. The products he buys and brands preferred are likely to have self expressive value especially a man of action dimension.

He is well educated mainly middle socioeconomic status, and a member of the youngest of the male groups.

Group 8

The sophisticated man (10 percent of total males)

He is likely to be an intellectual concerned about social issues, admires men with artistic and intellectual achievements. He is socially cosmopolitan with broad interests and wants to be dominant and a group leader. As a consumer he is attracted to the unique and fashionable.

He is best educated and of the highest economic status of all groups. He is younger than average.