# Steps in making Time Study

1) Obtaining and recording all information of job, operator, and surrounding conditions likely to affect the carrying of the work.
2) Recording the complete description of the method and breaking down the operation into elements.
3) Measuring with timing device and recording the time taken by the operator to perform each element of operation.
4) At the same time assessing the effective speed of operator to predetermined normal speed.
5) Converting the observed times, to normal times.
6) Determining the allowances to be made over and above the normal time for the operation.
7) Determining the allowed time for the operation.

The information to be obtained is as follows:

* Study number, sheet number and job sheet
* Name of the Work Study (WS) man, date of WS.
*Name of the person approving the study
* Name of product, drawing or specification number, part number, materials, quality requirement
* Department or location where the operation is taking place, description of operation.
* Method study or standard practice sheet number.
* Plant of machine utilized, jigs used, tools used
* Sketch of work place layout
* Operator’s name and his clock number
* Starting time and finish time of study.
* Duration of study.

Before recording the method, care should be taken that systematic method study has be carried out, if not, it should be done at this juncture. As has been made clear earlier, it is meaningless to talk of time study in absence of a properly defined method. Corresponding to each method, there is one only one T Standard Method study allows us to define the various possible alternatives if exacting a given task and choosing the best among them which is taken up for establishing the time study.

Methods of measuring work:

There are four common methods:

Direct Observation Methods>

1) Stop-watch studies
2) Activity (or work) sampling

Synthetic Methods>

1) Using standard data
2) Predetermined motion time systems

Measurement with a Stop watch:

Measure with a stop watch for each element repeated for sufficient number of cycles, so as to give data for all possible conditions. We also have to do performance rating which is assessing the effective speed of working of the operator to a predetermined normal speed.

Methods of Using the Stop Watch:

Basically, there are two ways of taking readings from a stop watch i.e. snap back (or fly back) timing and cumulative (or continuous) timing.

Snap Back Timing:

A method in which the hands of the stop watch are returned to zero at the end of each element, and are allowed to restart immediately, the time of the element being obtained directly.

Cumulative Timing:

A method in which the hands of the stop watch are allowed to continue to move without returning them to zero at the end of each element, the time for each element being obtained subsequently.

Rating>

We have to adjust the observed time to arrive at a basic time for the job which represents the normal rate of working. This process of adjustment is called rating.

Different rates of working are expressed numerically according to the particular rating scale that the WSO has been trained to use.

Figure compares three of the most commonly used rating scales. The difference to notice is that the level set as a standard for the two older rating scales is not the same as the standard rating for the British Standard rating 0 – 100 Scale.

Standard Rating:

The rating corresponding to the average rate at which qualified workers will naturally work at a job, provided they know and adhere to the specified method, and provided they are motivated to apply themselves to their work. If the standard rating is maintained and the appropriate relaxation is taken, a worker will achieve standard performance over the working day or shift.

British Standard 0–100 scale: One common scale is 0–100 scale. Here 0 represents no work at all and 100 a normal rate. We rate a job on this scale after observing. A slow rate may be rated around 50 and a fast one around 125. The observed time is adjusted to a sensible basic time by using the formula.

Basic Time = Observed Time x Rating /100