ON THE JOB TECHNIQUES
These are the most widely used techniques. No other techniques may interest the trainee so much as these do since the location of the learner is not an artificial one as the class-room. The success of these techniques depends on the immediate supervisor and how good a teacher he is. On-the-job techniques are especially useful for certain groups like scientific and technical personnel.
Though the costs of training initially appear to be low they may turn out to be high when wastage of all kinds is considered under this type of training.
This method of learning in isolation may prove to be inadequate but in combination with the other techniques will be excellent. The important on-the-job training techniques are: coaching, job rotation, under study, multiple management.
In coaching the trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who acts as an instructor and teaches job knowledge and skills to the trainee. He tells him what he want him to do, how it can be done and follows up while it is being done and corrects errors.
Coaching should be distinguished from counseling. Counseling involves a discussion between the boss and his subordinates of areas concerned with the manâ€™s hopes, fears, emotions and aspirations. It reaches into very personal and delicate matters. To be done correctly, counseling demands considerable background and ability on the part of the counselor. If carried out poorly, if may do considerable damage.
The act of coaching can be done in several ways. The executive apart from asking to do the routine work may ask them to tackle some complex problem by giving them chance to participate in decision-making.
One of the important limitations of this technique is that the individual cannot develop much beyond the limits of his own bossâ€™s abilities.
Multiple Management is a system in which permanent advisory committees of mangers study problems of the company and recommends solutions to higher management. It is also called Junior-board of executives system. These committees discuss the actual problems and different alternative solutions after which the decisions are taken.
The techniques of multiple management has certain advantages over the other techniques. They are:
1. Members have the opportunity to acquire the knowledge of various aspects of business.
2. It helps to identify the members who have the skills and capabilities of an effective manager.
3. Members have the opportunity to participate in the group interaction and thereby gain the practical experience of group decision-making.
4. It is relatively inexpensive method. Considerable number of executives can be developed in a short span of time.