Strictly interpreting your responsibility by saying things like, â€œThe rules clearly stateâ€¦.â€? Or â€œThis is the way weâ€™ve always done it.â€?
Transferring ones own responsibility of a task or decision to others.
If a task is given and the concerned is avoiding the task by false pleading ignorance or inability on some pretext
Stretching: Prolonging a task so that one appears to be occupiedâ€”for example, turning a two-week task into a four-month job.
Stalling: Appearing to be more or less supportive publicly while doing little or nothing privately.
Buffing: This is a nice way to refer to â€œcovering your rearâ€? It describes the practice of rigorously documenting activity to project an image of competence and thoroughness.
Playing safe is avoiding situations that may reflect unfavorably and includes taking on only projects with a high probability of success, having risky decision approved by superiors, qualifying expressions of judgment, and taking neutral position in conflicts.
Justifying is development of explanations that lessen oneâ€™s responsibility for a negative outcome and/or apologizing to demonstrate remorse.
Scape goating is placing the blame for a negative outcome on external factors that are not entirely blameworthy.
Misrepresenting is manipulation of information by distortion, embellishment, deception, selective presentation, or confused.
Prevention is trying to prevent a threatening change from occurring.
Self-protection is acting in ways to protect oneâ€™s self-interest during change by guarding information or other resources.
Impression Management (IM) Techniques:
Conformity is agreeing with some one elseâ€™s opinion in order to gain his or her approval.
Example: A manager tells his boss, â€œYouâ€™re absolutely right on your reorganization plan for the western regional office. I couldnâ€™t agree with you more.â€?
Explanations of a predicament creating event aimed at minimizing the apparent severity of the predicament.
Example: Sales manager to boss, â€œWe failed to get the ad in the paper on time, but no one responds to those ads anyway.â€?
Admitting responsibility for an undesirable event and simultaneously seeking to get a pardon for the action.
Example: Employee to boss, â€œIâ€™m sorry I made a mistake on the report. Please forgive me.â€?
Self Promotion is highlighting oneâ€™s best qualities, downplaying oneâ€™s deficits, and calling attention to oneâ€™s achievements.
Examples: A salesperson tells his boss: â€œSunil worked unsuccessfully for three years to try to get that account. I sewed it up in six weeks. Iâ€™m the best closer this company has.â€?
Complimenting others about their virtues in an effort to make one self appear perceptive and likable.
Example: New sales trainee to peer, â€œYou handled that clientâ€™s complaint so tactfully! I could never have handled that as well as you did.â€?
Favors are doing something nice for someone to gain that personâ€™s approval.
Example to prospective client, â€œIâ€™ve got two tickets to the theater tonight that I canâ€™t use. Take them. Consider it a thank you for taking the time to talk with me.
Enhancing or protecting oneâ€™s image by managing information about people and things with which one is associated.
Example: A job applicant says to an interviewer, â€œWhat a coincidence. Your boss and I were roommates in college.â€?