Managerial on the job training methods include job rotation, the coaching/ understudy approach and action learning.
Job rotation: A management training technique that involves moving a trainee from department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points.
Job rotation means moving management trainees from department to department to broaden their understanding of all parts of the business and to test their abilities. The trainee, often a recent college graduate, may spend several months in each department, fully involved in its operations. The trainee thus learns the department’s business by actually doing it, while discovering what jobs he or she prefers.
Coaching / Understudy Approach: Here the trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person he or she is to replace; the latter is responsible for the trainee’s coaching. Normally, the understudy relieves the executive of certain responsibilities giving the trainee a chance to learn the job.
Action learning: A training technique by which management trainees are allowed to work full time analyzing and solving problems in other departments.
Actions learning programs give managers and others released time to work full time analyzing ad solving problems in departments other than their own. The basics include: carefully selected teams of five to 25 members; assigning the teams real world business problems that extend beyond their usual areas of expertise; and structured learning through coaching and feedback. The employer’s senior managers usually choose the projects and decide whether to accept the team’s recommendations. Many major firms around the world from GE, to Samsung and Deutsche bank use action learning.
For example Pacific Gas & Electric Company’s (PG&E) Action Forum Process has three phases : (1) a frame work phase of six to eight weeks–this is basically an intense planning period during which the team defines and collects data on an issue to work on; (2) the Action Forum–two to three days at PG&E’s learning center discussing and developing action plan recommendations; and (3) accountability sessions, when the teams meet with the leadership group at 30, 60 and 90 days to review the status of their action plans.
Off the Job management training and development techniques:
There are many off the job techniques for training and developing managers.
Case study method>>
A development method in which the manager is presented with a written description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve
The Case Study method: Everyone knows the case study method presents a trainee with a written description of an organization problem. The person then analyzes the case, diagnoses the problem, and presents his or her findings and solutions in a discussion with other trainees.
Integrated case scenarios expand the case analysis concept by creating long term comprehensive case situations. For example, the FBI Academy created an integrated case scenario. It starts with a concerned citizen’s telephone call and ends 14 weeks later with a simulated trial. In between is the stuff of a genuine investigation including a healthy sampling of what can go wrong in an actual criminal. To create such scenarios scriptwriters (often employees in the firm’s training group) write the scripts. The scripts include themes, background stories, detailed personnel histories and role playing instructions. In the case of the FBI, the scenarios are aimed at developing specific training skills, such as interviewing witnesses and analyzing crime scenes.
The integrated case study method is used extensively in the executive education programs of the Indian Institute Management, Ahmedabad. After familiarizing the participants with relevant learning themes and decision situations, groups of participants are given a comprehensive case study for analysis and discussions. Participants present the case before the class and faculty. This exercise helps in consolidating learning from the program.