Some people such as Bill Gates are viewed as quiet and passive. Others such as Oprah Winfrey, are viewed as vocal and assertive. When we describe people in terms such as quiet, passive loud, aggressive, ambitious, extroverted, loyal, tense, or sociable, we are categorizing them in terms of personality traits. An individual’s personality is the combination of the psychological traits that characterize that person.
Literally dozens of traits are attributed to an individual’s behavior. So too are personality types as they show how people interact with one another and how they solve problems. Through the years, researchers attempted to focus specifically on which personality types and personality traits would identify information about the individual. Two of these efforts have been widely recognized –the Myers–Briggs Type indicators and the Big Five model of personality.
Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): A method of identifying personality types.
What are the Mybers Briggs types indicators? One or more used methods of identifying personality of the MBTI. The MBTI assessment uses four dimension of personality to identify 16 different personality types based on the responses to an approximately 10 items questionnaire. More than 2 million individuals take the MBTI assessment ach year in the United States alone. It’s used in such companies as Apple Computer, Honda, AT&T, Exxon, 3M, as well as many hospitals, educational institutions and the US Armed Forces.
The 16 personality types are based on four dimensions. That is, the MBTI assessment dimensions include Extraversion versus Introversion (EI) sensing versus Intuition (SN), Thinking versus Feeling (TF) and Judging perceiving (JP). The EI dimension describes an individual’s orientation toward the external world of the environment (E) or the inner world of ideas and experiences (I). The Sensing Intuition dimension indicates an individual’s preference for gathering data while focusing on a standard routine based on factual data (S) to focusing on the big picture and making connections among the facts (N). Thinking Feeling reflects one’s preference for making decisions in logical and analytical manner (T) or on the basis of values and beliefs and the effects the decision will have on others (F). The Judging Perceiving index reflects an attitude towards how one deals with the eternal world – either in a planned and orderly way (J) or preferring to remain flexible and spontaneous (P).
What is the big five model of personality?
Big five model: Five factor model of personality that includes extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.
Another way of viewing personality is through a five factor model of personality — more typically called the Big Five model. The big five factors are:
1) Extroversion: A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is sociable, talkative and assertive.
2) Agreeableness: A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is good natured, cooperative and trusting.
3) Conscientiousness: A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented.
4) Emotional stability: A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is clam, enthusiastic and secure (positive) or tense, nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).
5) Openness to experience: A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is imaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectual.
The personality dimensions of extroversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness of the Big Five model relate to the job performance of flight attendants. Personalities who are sociable, good natured and responsible perform well in serving the needs of passengers.
The Big Five model provides more than just a personality framework. Research has shown that important relationships exist between these personality dimensions and job performance. For example, one study reviewed five categories of occupations: professionals (e.g. engineers, architects, attorneys), police, managers, sales and semiskilled and skilled employees. Job performance was defined in terms of employee performance ratings, training competency, and personnel data such as salary level. The results of the study showed that conscientious predicted job performance for all five occupational groups. Predictions for the other personality dimensions depended on the situation and the occupational group.