Geology can cover crystallography, mineralogy and petrology, geochemistry, geophysics, paleontology, oceanography, meteorology and plate tectonics. It is concerned with real world beyond the laboratory and has direct relevance to the needs of society. The major applications of the geosciences are in exploration and responsible development of natural resources preservation of the natural environment restoration from environmental damage and mitigation of geo hazards such as earthquakes and landslides as also exploratory research.
Geoscientists work with people data information ideas and technology. They may have to work outdoors quiet often and in all; kinds of weather and some like seismologists or volcanologists may have to face dangerous conditions when observing and gathering data. Geoscientists study and map the distribution of rocks exposed on the earth’s surface. They provide the knowledge and understandings of how energy resources such as oil and gas, coal and uranium are formed and where they may be found.
Specialized fields of work:
Geologists study the physical aspects of the earth including its origin history, composition and structure. They obtain physical data by drilling and by collecting and examining rocks and other samples.
Geophysicists use the principles of physics and mathematics and chemistry not only to study physical aspects of the earth but also its atmosphere and hydrosphere.
Geochemists study the nature and distribution of the chemical elements in ground water an earth materials.
Hydro geologists study ground water (the water that is held in pores of rocks and sediment beneath the land surface). They also study the chemical characteristics of groundwater since those characteristics affect the suitability of water for human consumption and other uses.
Meteorologists study the atmosphere and atmospheric phenomena including the weather.
Oceanographers use the principles and techniques of natural sciences, mathematics and engineering to study oceans their movements physical properties and plant and animal life.
Paleontologists study fossils to understand past life forms and their changes through times and to reconstruct past environment.
Petroleum geologists are involved in the exploration and production of oil and natural gas.
Seismologists determine the time and place where earthquakes occur each year. They detect earthquakes and locate earthquake related faults.
Geologists must be fit, as they are often required to work in difficult climatic conditions or even underground. They must be able to work both as team members and organizers. Knowledge of relevant foreign or regional languages is useful.
Education and training
Geology may be offered as subject at the plus two levels. Senior secondary education in physics, chemistry and mathematics is usually the starting point for entry into B Sc degree with geology. Other educational options after the plus two levels could be B.Sc in Applied Geology/ Geophysics/ equivalent or five year M Sc Integrated in Applied Geology / Exploration Geophysics at IIT Kharagpur or allied choices at IIT Roorkee or Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad.
A master’s degree is required for professional entry level positions. M Sc courses offer specializations such as applied geology, applied geophysics, geophysics and applied geophysics M Sc Tech courses are offered in marine geophysics geo-technology applied geology / geophysics and earth science. Students contemplating a professional career in the geosciences should consider getting a PhD which would lead to faculty positions in universities / colleges and openings in advanced research institutions. Postgraduate diploma courses are offered in applied hydrology applied geochemistry applied quaternary geology environmental geology etc.
Geoscientists also advise on the design and safety of landfill sites and other environmentally sensitive developments. They study the movement behavior and quality of groundwater and potential sources of pollution and design exploration programs for new water supplies.
Post graduates in geology or applied geology or marine geology or mineral exploration are invited to apply for the UPSC Geologists Examination for recruitment in the Geologists Survey of India. Through the same examination, postgraduates in Hydrogeology may apply for post in the Central Ground Water Board. Postgraduates in geology / applied geology may apply for recruitment as junior geologist in the Maharashtra Ground water Services in the Directorate of groundwater Surveys and Development Agency through the process conducted by the Maharashtra Public service Commission.
Employment opportunities are in the private sector or public sector in the government as also with non-governmental organizations.
Indian Bureau of Mines, Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited, Indian Meteorological Department the ONGC oil and gas companies, gem industry building, industries surveying, metal extraction and allied industries, mineral research and extraction in environmental protection and conservation agencies teaching and research etc are typical employers of geoscientists.
1) St Xavier’s College , Mumbai
2) Indian Institute of Bombay
3) University of Pune
4) Gujarat University , Ahmadabad
5) Indian School of Mines, Dhandad.