The goals of advertising around the world vary substantially. For example Chinese manufacturers are establishing new brands as their economy expands. Unilever is introducing a new product line extension, Dove Shampoo in East Asian markets. And Russia’s airline Aeroflot is seeking to upgrade its quality image. All these marketing problems require careful marketing research and thoughtful and creative advertising campaigns in country, regional and global markets respectively.
Intense competition for world markets and the increasing sophistication of foreign consumers have led to a need for more sophisticated advertising strategies, Increased costs problems of coordinating advertising programs in multiple countries, and a desire for a broader company or product image have caused multinational companies (MNCs) to seek greater control and efficiency without sacrificing local responsiveness. In the quest for more effective and responsive promotion programs the policies covering centralized or decentralized authority use of single or multiple foreign or domestic agencies, appropriation and allocation procedures, copy, media, and research are being examined. More and more multinational companies can be seen to be managing the balance between standardization of advertising themes and customization.
A case in point is the Gillette Company, which sells 800 products in more than 200 countries. Gillette has a consistent worldwide image as a masculine sports oriented company but its products have no such consistent image. Its razors blades, toiletries and cosmetics are known by many names. Trac II blades in the United States are more widely known worldwide as G-II and Atra blades are called Contour in Europe and Asia. Silkience hair conditioner is known as Soyance in France Sientel in Italy, and Silkence in Germany. Whether or not global brand names could have been chosen for Gillette’s many existing products is speculative. However, Gillette’s current corporate philosophy of globalization provides for an umbrella statement Gillette the Best man can get, in all advertisements for men’s toiletries products in the hope of providing some common image.
A similar situation exists for Unilever which sells cleaning liquid called Vif in Switzerland Viss in Germany, Jif in Britain and Greece and Cif in France. This situation is a result of Unilever marketing separately to each of these countries. At this point, it would be difficult for Gillette or Unilever to standardized messages across national markets their telecommunication.
In many cases standardized products may be marketed globally. But because of differences in cultures, they still require a different advertising appeal in different markets. For instance Ford’s Model advertising varies by nation because of language and societal nuances. Ford advertises the affordability of its Escort in the United States where the car is seen as entry level. But in India, Ford launched the Escort as a premium car. It’s not unusual to see an Escort with a chauffeur there aid a Ford executive.
Finally, many companies are using market segment strategies that ignore national boundaries – business buyers or high income consumers across the globe are often targeted for example Others are proposing newer global market segments defined by consumer cultures related to shared sets of consumptions related symbols – convenience , youth, America internationalism and humanitarianism are examples. Other more traditional segments are product and region related those are discussed next.
This packaged of satisfaction or utilizes includes the primary function of the product or service along with many others benefits from the Primary function of a product for example, the ability of an automobile to get from point A to point B a camera to take a picture, or a wristwatch to tell, time. But while usually agreeing on the benefits of the primary function of a product, other features and psychological attributes of the item can have significant differences.