HRM is process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. It tries to secure the best from people by winning their whole hearted cooperation. In short, it may be defined as the art of procuring developing and maintaining competent workforce to achieve the goals of an organization in an effective and efficient manner. It has the following features:
Pervasive force: HRM in pervasive in nature. It is present in all enterprises. It permeates all levels of management in organizations
Action oriented: HRM focuses attention on action, rather than on record keeping written procedures or rules. The problems of employees at work solved through rational policies.
It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. It encourages them to give their best to the organizations. It motivates employees through a systematic process of recruitment, selection, training and development coupled with fair wage policies.
People oriented: HRM is all about people at work both as individuals and groups. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results. The resultant gains are used to reward people and motivate them toward further improvements in productivity.
Future oriented: Effective HRM helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well motivated employees.
Development oriented: HRM intends to develop the full potential of employees. The reward structure is tuned to the needs of employees. Training is offered to sharpen and improve their skills. Employees are rotated on various jobs so that they gain experience and exposure. Every attempt is made to use their talents fully in the service of organizational.
Integrating mechanism: HRM tries to build and maintain cardinal relations between people working at various levels in the organization. In short it tries to integrate human assets in the best possible manner the service of an organization.
Comprehensive functions: HRM is to some extent concerned with any organizational decision which has an impact on the workforce or the potential workforce. The term workforce signifies people working at various levels, including workers, supervisors, middle and top managers. It is concerned with managing people at work. It covers all types of personnel. Personnel work may take different shapes an forms at each level in the organizational hierarchy but the basic objective of achieving organizational effectiveness through effective ad efficient utilization of human resources remains the same. It is basically a method of developing potentialities of employees so that they get maximum satisfaction out of their work and give their best efforts to the organizations
Auxiliary service: HR departments exist to assist an advice the line or operating managers to do their personnel work more effectively. HR manager is a specified advisor. It is staff function.
Inter disciplinary function: HRM is a multi disciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology, sociology, economics etc. To unravel the mystery surrounding the human brain managers, need to understand and appreciate the contributions of all such soft disciplines.
Continuous functions: According to Terry, HRM is not a one shot deal. It cannot be practiced only one hour each day or one day a week. It requires a constant alertness and awareness of human relations and their importance in every day operations.
Scope of HRM
The scope of HRM is very wide. Research in behavioral sciences, new trends in managing knowledge workers and advances in the field of training have expanded the scope of HR functions in recent years. The Indian Institute of personnel management has specified the scope of HRM thus:
1) Personnel aspect: This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer promotion, training ad development lay off and retrenchment remuneration incentives productivity etc.
2) Welfare aspect: It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, crèches rest and lunch room housing transport medical assistance education , healthy and safety recreation facilities etc
3) Industrial relations aspects: This covers union management relations joint consultation collective bargaining grievances and disciplinary procedures settlement of disputes etc.