AREAS OF MAINTENANCE
The major areas of maintenance are â€“
1. Civil Maintenance:
Under this category we have—- Building construction and maintenance, maintaining service facilities such as water, gas, steam, compressed air, heating and ventilating, air conditioning, painting, plumbing and carpentry work. Also included in civil maintenance are janitor, service, house keeping, scrap disposal, fencing, land-shaping, gardening and maintaining drainage, lawns and fire fighting equipments.
2. Mechanical Maintenance:
Maintaining machines and equipments, transport vehicles, material handling equipments, steam generators, boilers, compressors and furnaces fall in this category.. Lubricating the machines is also part of mechanical maintenance work.
3. Electrical Maintenance:
Maintaining electrical equipments such as generators, transformers, switch gears, motors, telephone systems, electrical installation, lighting, fans meters, gages instruments, controls panels and battery charging and likewise are covered under this.
In all the above stated areas organization may use any or all the five types of maintenance, viz.
(i) Break down maintenance or corrective maintenance.
(ii) Preventive maintenance.
(iii) Predictive maintenance.
(iv) Routine maintenance.
(v) Planned maintenance.
Break down Maintenance or Corrective Maintenance:
As the name suggests, corrective maintenance occurs, when there is a work stoppage because of machine breakdown. In this sense, maintenance becomes repair work. Repairs are made when the equipment is out of order â€“ an electric motor will not start, a conveyor belt is ripped, or a shaft has broken. In cases such as these, the maintenance department checks into the difficulty and makes the necessary repairs. Role of the department is almost passive.
Nevertheless, corrective maintenance seeks to achieve the following objectives:
(i) To get equipment back into operation as quickly as possible in order to minimize interruption to production. These objectives can directly affect production capacity, production costs and quality and customer satisfaction.
(ii) To control the cost of repair crews, including regular time and overtime labor costs.
(iii) To control the cost of the operation of repair shops.
(iv) To control the investment in replacement spare parts, that is used when machines are to be repaired.
(v) To control the investment in replacement spare machines, which are called stand-up or back-up machines. These replace manufacturing machines until the needed repairs are completed.
(vi) To perform the appropriate amount of repairs at each malfunction. The decision about how far to go with a repair ranges from a band-aid and bubble gum fix to a complete overhaul. Some parts can be replaced early to extend the time until next repair is required.
In marked contrast to corrective maintenance, is preventive maintenance, which is undertaken before the need arises and aims to minimize the possibility of un-anticipated production or major breakdowns.
A well-conceived maintenance program should contain the following features:
1. Proper identification of all items to be included in the program.
2. Adequate records covering, volume of work, cost and so forth.
3. Inspections on definite schedule â€“ with standing orders on specific assignments.
4. Use of checklists by inspectors.
5. An inspection frequency schedule may vary from as often as once every six hours to as little s once a year.
6. Well-qualified inspectors â€“ have craftsmen with items being inspected and capable of making simple repairs as soon as trouble is noticed.
7. Use of repair budgets for major items of equipment.
8. Administrative procedures that provide necessary fulfillment and follow-up on programs.