The operative functions of P/HRM are related to specific activities of personnel management viz., employment, development, compensation and industrial relations. These functions are to be performed in conjunction with managerial functions.
Procurement function: The first operative function of personnel management is procurement. It is concerned with procuring and employing people who possess necessary skills, knowledge and aptitude. Under its purview you have job analysis, manpower planning recruitment selection, placement, induction and internal mobility.
1) Job analysis: It is the process of collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities pertaining to a specific job.
2) Human resources planning: It is a process of determining and assuring that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times performing jobs which would meet their needs and provide satisfaction for the individuals involved.
3) Recruitment: It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.
4) Selection: It is the process of ascertaining qualifications, experience, skill and knowledge of an applicant with a view to appraising his /her suitability to the job in question.
5) Placement: It is the process that ensures a 3600 fit, matching the employee’s qualifications, experience skills and interest with the job on offer: It is the personnel manager’s responsibility to position the right candidate at the right level.
6) Induction and orientation: Induction and orientation are techniques by which a new employee is rehabilitated in his new surrounding and introduced to the practices, policies, and people. He must be acquainted with the principles which define and drive the organization, its mission statement and values which form its backbone.
7) Internal Mobility: The movement of employees from one job to another through transfers and promotions is called internal mobility. Some employees leave an organization due to various reasons leading to resignation retirement and even termination. These movements are known as external mobility. In the best interest of an organization and its employees such job changes should be guided by well conceived principles and policies.
Development: It is the process of improving, molding, changing and developing the skills, knowledge, creative ability, aptitude, attitude, values and commitment based on present and future requirements both at the individual and organization’s level. This function includes:
1) Training which is a continuous process where employees learn skills, knowledge, abilities, and attitudes to further organizational and personnel goals.
2) Executive development: it is a systematic process of developing managerial skills and capabilities through appropriate programs.
3) Career planning and development: It is planning of one’s career and implementation of career plans by means of education, training, job search and acquisitions of work experience. It includes succession planning which implies identifying, developing and tracking key individuals for executive positions.
4) Human resources development: HRD aims at developing the total organization. It creates a climate that enables every employee to use his capabilities in order to further both the individual and the organization.
Motivation and compensation: It is a process which inspires people to give their best to the organization through the use of intrinsic (achievement, recognition, responsibility) and extrinsic (job design, work scheduling, appraisal based incentives) rewards.
Job design: Organizing tasks and responsibilities towards having a productive unit of work is called job design. The main purpose of job design is to integrate the needs of employers to suit the requirements of an organization.
Work scheduling: Organizations must realize the importance of scheduling work to motivate employees through job enrichment, shorter work weeks, flexi-time work sharing and home work assignments. Employees need to be challenged at work and the job itself must be one that they value. Work scheduling is an attempt to structure work, incorporating the physical, physiological and behavioral aspects of work.
Motivation: Combining forces that allow people to behave in certain ways is an integral aspect of motivation. People must have both the ability and the motivation if they are to perform at a high level. Managers generally try to motivate people through properly administered rewards (financial as well as non-financial).