Dynamic Nature of Jobs
In a labor surplus and capital hungry country like India, jobs are very important for the individuals. They help determine the standard of living, places of residence, status and even one’s sense of self worth. Jobs are important to organizations also because they are the means of accomplishing organizational objectives. Traditionally, organizations used to define jobs in a rigid way. The popular view about a job was that what it requires does not change, it is designed to be immutable and unchanging , irrespective of the various incumbents who perform them. In reality however jobs are not static. They are subject to change. Technological advances and competitive pressures may often force an organization to put more emphasis on characteristics of successful performance rather than on standard job duties, tasks etc . Moreover, the same job might be handled differently at different times of the year (e.g. life guards, accountants, ski instructors, actors). The job incumbent might declare ‘I do what I believe right on the job.’ The job is what the incumbent makes of it. To understand the dynamic nature of jobs, managers gather information about jobs from time to time.
What is Job Analysis?
Job analysis is a formal and detailed examination of jobs. It is a systematic investigation of the tasks duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job. A task is an identifiable work activity carried out for specific purposes, for example, typing letter. A duty is a larger work segment consisting of several tasks (which are related by some sequence of events). That are performed by an individual, for example pick up, sort out and deliver incoming mail. Job responsibilities are obligations to perform certain tasks and duties.
Nature of Jobs >> Job Tasks >> Job duties >> Job Responsibilities.
Job analysis is an important personnel activity because it identifies what people do in their jobs and what they require in order to do this job satisfactorily . The information about a job is usually collected through a structured questionnaire
Use of Job analysis
Good human resource management demands of both the employees and the employer a clear understanding of the duties and responsibilities to be performed on a job. Job analysis helps in this understanding by drawing attention to a unit of work and its linkage with other units of work. More specifically the uses of job analysis may be summarized thus:
Human resources planning: Job analysis helps in forecasting human resources requirement in terms of knowledge and skills . By showing lateral and vertical relationships between the jobs it facilitates the formulation of a systematic promotion and transfer policy. It also helps in determining quality of human resources needed in an organization.
Recruitment: Job analysis is used to find out how and when to hire people for future job openings. An understanding of the skills needed and the positions that are vacant in future helps managers to plan and hire people in a systematic way. For example, a company might be traditionally hiring MBA students for equity research. A recent job analysis showed that the positions could be filled by graduates with an analytical bent of mind. Now, this would help the company hire equity analysts from a greater number of available graduates even by offering a slightly lower salary.
Selection: Without a proper understanding of what is to be done on a job, it is not possible to select the right person. If a super bazaar manager has not clearly identified what a clerk is to do, it is difficult to ascertain if the person selected is to position store items, run a cash register or keep the account books.
Training: If there is any confusion about what the job is and what is supposed to be done, proper training efforts cannot be initiated . Whether or not a current or potential job holder requires additional training can be determined only after the specific needs of the jobs have been identified through a job analysis.
Source: HRM VSP