It is always better to use supervisor’s job incumbents or some combinations of these to obtain information about jobs in an organization. The job incumbent offers a clear view of what work is actually done as against what work is supposed to be done. Further, involving job incumbents in the job analysis process might increase their acceptance of any work changes stemming from the results of analysis . However on the negative side, job incumbents might exaggerate the responsibilities and importance of their work and in the process the whole effort might suffer due to lack of objectivity . External analysts help void such biased opinions. They tend to base their write ups on a realistic view of the people, jobs and the total organization system, as a whole. To be effective external analysts should have considerable knowledge about how work is actually processed within the organizations while offering snapshots of the job; present requirements and expected changes in future must also be taken into account . The choice who should analyze a job depends on many factors including the location and complexity of the jobs to be analyzed, how receptive incumbents might be to an external analyst, and the ultimate purpose of the results of the analysis.
The process of Job analysis:
The major steps involved in job analysis are as follows:
Organizational analysis: First of all, an overall picture of various jobs in the organization has to be obtained. This is required to find the linkages between jobs and organizational objectives, interrelationship between jobs and contribution of various jobs to the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. The required background information for this purpose is obtained through organization charts and workflow charts.
Selection of representative positions to be analyzed: It is not possible to analyze all the jobs. A representative sample of jobs to be analyzed is decided keeping the cost and time constraints in mind.
Collection of job analysis data: This step involves the collection of data on the characteristics of the job, the required behavior and personal qualifications needed to carry out the job effectively. Several techniques are available for collecting such data. Care should be taken to use only reliable and acceptable techniques in a given situation.
Preparation of job description: This step involves describing the contents of the job in terms of functions, duties, responsibilities , operations, etc. The job holder is required to discharge the duties and responsibilities and perform the operations listed in the job description.
Preparation of job specification: This step involves conversion of the job description statements into a job specification . Job specifications is a written statement of personal attributes in terms of traits, skills training, experience needed to carry out in the job.
Job requirements keep changing with time. Technological advances may demand a new approach to handle job operations. Union agreements may give a greater say in handling certain other responsibilities . The employees attitude might change. In the past, jobs were designed with the view that they would not change. There was no attempt to link changing job requirements with changing attitudes of employees towards work. It is only in the late 70s many organizations realized the importance of carrying out frequent job analyses and tune the jobs in line with the mental make up of people who handle them – for achieving greater efficiency and higher productivity.
Competency approach to job analysis:
The Competency Approach to Job analysis focuses on linking business strategies to individual performance efforts. Where organizations operate in a fast changing environment , employees may have to work in different teams, take up tasks of varied nature and perform multiple roles (such as leader , supporter, tactician, technical expert, administrator etc) from time to time. The Competency Approach to Job Analysis, therefore encourages employees to develop role based competencies (knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to play multifarious roles) that may be used in diverse work situations instead of being boxed into a job.