The human resources are the most important assets of the organization. The success or failure of an organization is largely dependent on the caliber of the people working therein . Without positive and creative contributions from people organizations cannot progress and prosper. In order to achieve the goals or perform the activities of an organization , therefore we need to recruit people with requisite skills, qualification and experience. While doing so, we have to keep the present as well as the future requirements of the organization.
Recruitment is the process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to apply for existing or anticipated job openings .It is actually a linking function, joining together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs. Recruitment logically aims at (1) attracting a large number of qualified applicants who are ready to take up the job if it’s offered and (2) offering enough information for unqualified persons to self select themselves out (for example the recruitment ad of foreign banks may invite applications from chartered accountants who have cleared the CA examination in the first attempt only).
Constraints and challenges:
In actual practices it is always not easy to find and select a suitable candidate for a job opening. The recruiter’s choice of a communication medium (e.g. advertising in trade journal read by the prospective candidate) may not be appropriate . Some of the bright candidates may begin to view the vacancy as not in line with their current expectations (e.g. challenging work, excellent rewards flexible schedules and so on).
The most suitable ones may not have been motivated to apply due to several other constraints.
Poor image: If the image of a firm is perceived to be low (due to factors such as operating in a declining industry earning a bad name because of environmental pollution, poor quality products, nepotism insider trading allegations against promoters etc) the likelihood of attracting a large number of qualified applicants is reduced.
Unattractive job: If the job to be filled is not very attractive, most prospective candidates may turn indifferent and may not even apply. This is especially true in case of jobs that are dull, boring anxiety producing, devoid of career growth opportunities and generally do not reward performance in a proper way (e.g. jobs in departmental undertakings such as Railways, Post, and Telegraphs, public sector banks and Insurance companies failing to attract talent from premier management institutes).
Conservative internal policies: A policy of filling vacancies through internal promotions based on seniority, experience, job knowledge etc may often come in the way of searching for qualified hands in the broader job market in an unbiased way. Likewise, in firms where powerful unions exist, managers may be compelled to pick up candidates with questionable merit, based on issues such as caste, race, religion, region, nepotism, friendship etc.
Limited budgetary support: Recruiting efforts require money. Sometimes because of limited resources, organizations may not like to carry on the recruiting efforts for long periods of time. This can, ultimately constrain a recruiter’s efforts to attract the best person for the job.
Restrictive policies of government: Government policies often come in the way of recruiting people as per the rules for company or on the basis of merit / seniority etc. For examples reservations for special groups (such as scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, backward classes, physically handicapped and disabled persons, ex-servicemen etc) have to be observed as per Constitutional provisions while filling up vacancies in government corporations, departmental undertakings , local bodies quasi government organizations etc.
Source: HRM Management V S P Rao