After employees have been selected for various positions in an organization training them for the specific tasks in which they have been assigned assumes great importance. It is true in many organizations that before an employee is fitted into a harmonious working relationship with other employees, he is given adequate training. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for performing a particular job. The major outcome of training is learning. A trainee learns new habits, refined skills and useful knowledge during the training that helps him improve performance . Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job. The essential features of training may be stated thus:
Features of training
1) Increases knowledge and skills for doing a particular job; it bridges the gap between job needs and employee skills, knowledge and behavior.
2) Focuses attention on the current job specific and addresses particular performance deficits or problems.
3) Concentrate on individual employees changing what employers know, how they work, attitudes toward their work or their interactions with their co-workers or supervisors.
4) Tends to be more narrowly focused and oriented towards short term performance concerns.
Training is needed to serve the following purpose:
1) Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. Instructions guidance and coaching help them to handle jobs competently without any wastage.
2) Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher level jobs (promotion)
3) Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest development in job operations. In the face of rapid technological changes, this is an absolute necessity.
4) Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer). After training the employee can change job quickly, improve his performance levels and achieve career goals comfortably.
5) Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs.
6) Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employees has and what the job demands. Training is needed to make employees more productive and useful in the long run.
7) Training is needed for employees to again acceptance from peers (learning a job quickly and being able to pull their weight is one of the best ways for them to gain acceptance.
Training often has been referred to as teaching specific skills and behavior. Examples of training are learning to fire a rifle to shoot foul shots in basketball and to type. It is usually reserved for people who have to be brought up to performing level in some specific skills. The skills are almost always behavioral and distinct from conceptual or intellectual.
Development in contrast is considered to be more general than training and more oriented to individual needs in addition to organizational needs and it is most often aimed toward management people. There is more theory involved with such education and hence less concern with specific behavior than is the case with training. Usually the intent of development is to provide knowledge and understanding and that they enable people to carry out non technical organizational functions more effectively such as problem solving, decision making and relating to people.
Thus, training is meant for operatives and development is meant for managers. Training tries to improve a specific skill relating to a job whereas development aims at improving the total personality of an individual. Training is a one shot deal; whereas development is an ongoing continuous process. The scope of training is on individuals employees, whereas the scope of development is on the entire work group or the organizations. Training is mostly the result of initiatives taken by the management. It is the result of some outside motivation. Development is mostly the result of internal motivation. Training seeks to meet the current requirements of the job and the individual whereas development aims at meeting the future needs of the job and the individual. In other words, training is a reactive process whereas development is a proactive process. Development is future oriented training focusing on the personal growth of the employees.
Excerpts from HRM