The basic type of production system and the finished goods inventory policy to be used must be decided at the earliest stages of process planning.
The common type of production systems are:
1.Product-focused production system.
2.Process â€“focused production system.
3.Group-technology/cellular manufacturing system.
Product-focused production system
In this type of production processing, the production departments are organized according to the type of production/services being produced, all production operations required to produce a product/service are grouped into one production department or work centre.
Product-focused productions are also known as line flow production or continuous production. In line flow production, the products tend to follow along direct linear paths and in continuous production the products tend to proceed through production departments without stopping.
Group Technology (GT)/ Cellular Manufacturing (CM) Systems
GM/CM manufacturing is a form of production that has been developed recently.
In group technology, the products or components being manufactured are placed in families or groups and separate manufacturing cells are used to manufacture these groups.
GT can be used to develop a hybrid between product focused and process focused production systems .GT enables production of a variety of parts in small batches to achieve economies of line-flow production without product standardization.
Cellular manufacturing is a subset of group technology concept .A close grouping of equipments for processing a sequence of operations in multiple units of a part or a family of parts is called a manufacturing cell. Use of manufacturing cells reduces
the distance moved by parts between machines. Parts do not have to be moved in large batches to reduce the transportation cost .Frequently parts are processed one-by-one through processing steps, thereby, reducing the work-in-process inventory and the manufacturing cycle time or through â€“out time.
In companies that have a large variety of parts, GT is helpful, in selecting appropriate families of parts that can be processed in the manufacturing cells.
Manufacturing process technology refers to the equipment, people and system used to produce a firmâ€™s products and services.
Key process technology decisions relate to:
1.Organizing the process flows.
2.Choosing the appropriate product-process unit.
3.Adapting the process to meet strategic requirements.
4.Evaluating automation and high-technology processes.
Five types of process technologies are job shop, batch technology, assembly line, continuous flow and project technology.
Job shop technology is suitable for a variety of custom â€“designed products in small volumes
Batch technology is suitable for a variety of products in varying volumes.
Assembly line technology is suitable for a narrow range of standardized products in high volumes.
Continuous flow technology is suitable for producing a continuous flow of products, e.g., chemical plants and oil refineries.
Project technology is suitable for producing products that are tailor made to the unique requirements of each customer.