CORPORATE REORGANISATIONAL CHANGES-
The term â€œOrganizational Changeâ€? implies the creation of imbalance in the existent pattern or situation. Adjustment among people, technology and structural set up is established when an organization operates for a long time. People adjust with their jobs, working conditions , colleagues, superiors etc. Similarly, an organization establishes relationship in the external environment. Change requires individuals and organizations to make new adjustments. Complexity and fear of adjustment give rise to resistance and problem of change. Human resources is an important factor in the adjustments among individuals as well as between the organization and environment as an organization is mostly composed of people. Individuals members can resist either individually or in group.
Change could be both reactive and proactive. A proactive change has necessarily to be planned to attempted to prepare for anticipated future challenges. A reactive change may be an automatic response or a planned response to change taking place in the environment.
TYPES OF CHANGE
Changes can be broadly divided into: (1) Work change; and (2) Organizational change. Work change includes changes in machinery, working hours, method of work, job enlargement and enrichment, job-redesign or re-engineering. Change may also be in the working hours like morning shifts, evening shifts, operation of the organization on Sundays/Holidays.
Changes relating to organization include change in employees due to transfers, promotion, retrenchment, lay-off, restructuring or organization, introduction of new products or services, imposition of regulation, changes in organizational goals or objectives etc.
RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
Reasons for Resistance
Some of the important reasons for resistance to change are as follows:
Economic reasons for resistance are classified into three groups. They are :
1. Fear of Reduction in Employment: Due to the change in technology, methods of work, quantity or quality of work etc. This fear leads to resistance to change on the part of people. Opposition to automation is an example to it.
2. Fear to Demotion: Employees may fear that they may be demoted if they do not possess the new skills required for their jobs, after the introduction of change. Hence , they prefer â€˜status quoâ€™.
3. Fear of Workload : Change in work technology and methods may lead to the fear that workload will be increased while there will there will not be any corresponding increase in their salaries and benefits. This feeling creates resistance to change.
Personal reasons for resistance are also divided into three classes. They are :
1. Need for training: If change in technology and work organization necessitates training and re-learning on the part of employees, it may lead to resistance, as all do not like to go for refresher and retraining courses off and on.
2. Boredom and Monotony If the proposed change is expected to lead to greater specialization resulting in boredom and monotony, it may also be resisted by employees.
3. No Participation in Change: Some employees resist any changes as they are critical of the situation and they are not being given any part in decision-making process for change. When they do not understand fully the implications of change , they resist it.
Social reasons for resistance are also classified into three groups. They are :
1. Need for New Social Adjustment : And Organizational change requires new social adjustment with the group, work situation and new boss etc. All individuals are not ready to accept this challenges. Some people refuse transfers and promotions for this reasons only, as they will have to break their present social ties.
2. Taking Change as Imposed from Outside : Some employees take any change as imposed from outside upon them.
3. Other Considerations: Some employees may consider that every change brought about is for the benefit of the organization only and not for them, their fellow workers or even the general public. Hence, they resist the change.