Training and development of employees in India

Training is the act of increasing knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. The major outcome of training is learning. A trainee learns new habits, refined skills, and useful knowledge during the training that helps him improve performance. Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job. Training, thus, may be defined as a planned program designed to improve performance and bring about measurable changes in knowledge skills attitude and social behavior of employees.

Training and development is considered important by professional organizations in India. Others consider it as a waste of time as after sometime the performance oriented employees leave the organization and join professional organizations. The HR department of a professional company is empowered with all the training programs.

Training consequently leads to development. The training can be of two types. The first one is of behavioral sciences which the HR department has to organize second one is of the function of which the department head has to take initiatives and in concert with HR department has to organize and send their employees. The senior executives or the departmental head is responsible for all the functional area training.

Whatever is the training the concerned department and HR in concert organize them for a full year and decide on whom to send. The training programs have to cover all the employees depending upon their positions and the requirement.

In the performance appraisals all the senior people have the KRA as “Development of subordinates”.  The senior person has to mention in detail about the training of his assistant. Behavioural Sciences include programs like performance appraisals, achievement motivation, leadership styles, transaction analysis, team building, effective communication etc. The training in  functional areas include the concern function like manufacturing, production planning, Supply chain management, Industrial purchasing, Stores layout, Inventory control,  Marketing  etc.

The departmental head has to spare the person for the training irrespective of the departmental work. Normally the duration is One to four days. Each and every individual has to undergo at least two training programs per year. One in behavioural science and the other in functional area. The employee should not be disturbed for whatsoever reason during the training programs by his superior or departmental head.

Behavioural science training is imparted to all the employees irrespective of their function. It is the prime responsibility of HR department to organize the same in house or outsource and inform the yearly program to all the departmental heads. It is the departmental heads who have to spare their team members for this program. The team members are recommended by the departmental heads depending upon their position in the hierarchy. For example, training program is given to the junior most executive.

Achievement Motivation training is imparted to employees of middle level position. Leadership style is imparted to employees who are in the senior level. Transaction analysis that is interaction with people in a smooth way and getting the work done is imparted to all the employees in the department. There can be many other training programs which HR department may organize during the year like TQM, ISO and others. The departmental Head has to recommend suitable candidates from his department.

The functional area of training  is mostly designed by their departmental Head of the specific functional area. But the dates for the functional area programs are finalized by the HR department. The programs  will be like

1)   Financial  accounting for non-financial executives

2)   Manufacturing processes

3)   Supply chain management

4)   Industrial purchasing

5)   Marketing

6)   Sales

7)   Quality Control

8)   Store layout

9)   Human Resources, and

10)  Administration

There can be other programs in the function area. The HR in concert with the departmental head will decide who should attend these programs. The programs will be brief with a duration of 1 to 3 days. Once agreed with the HR the departmental head has to spare his team member for the program.

Training is a learning experience that is planned and carried out by the organization to enable more skilled task behaviour by the trainee. Training imparts the ability to detect and correct error. Furthermore it provides skills and abilities that may be called on in the future to satisfy the organization’s human resources needs. Training may be  carried out off the job or in the classroom and in the latter case, it may be on site or off site; perhaps in a  training centre or in a house. In any case, trainees are expected to acquire abilities and knowledge that will enable them to perform their jobs more effectively.

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  • Vipulranpura1

    Good Inputs

  • Naveenkrishna575

    its very help full to us

  • Sophia Yogesh,HR Trainer


  • Narendra Singh Sisodiya

    good information about T & D 

  • J4jhny

    very informative……..but i want to know calculation and administration of training cost will be estimated by whom…..and evaluation of return on training cost will be estimated with in how-much days and by whom…..?


     Unfortunatelly, in many organisations, training is still considered as a Cost and Not an Investment for Future.  When it comes to cutting costs, perhaps Training comes first !   Many line managers still do not allow their team members to attend training programmes in the name of ‘attending to urgent work’. I know personally several instances when a trg programme was dropped due to lack of participants !!

  • M_maahi88

    great hlp for hr students.nice effort.

  • Samina

    Very informative Article.

  • Etoperesu

    great to train employees but how can an organization avoid being a training ground for others. 

  • Rsuma09

    Thumbs up !