Man Power planning is the forecasting of human resource needs and the projected matching of individuals with expected vacancies. Human resource plan begins the planning with several questions:
–What new technologies are emerging, and how will these affect the work system?
–What is the volume of the business likely to be in the next five to ten years?
–What is the attrition rate and how much?
–What is being done to prevent attrition?
The responses to these questions are used to formulate specific questions pertaining to HR activities, such as the following:
–How many senior managers will we need during this time period?
–What types of engineers will we need, and how many?
–Are persons with adequate computer skills available for meeting our projected needs?
–How many administrative personnel – technicians IT specialists – will we need to support the additional managers and engineers?
Answers to these questions help define the direction for the organization’s HRM. For example if forecasting suggest that there will be a strong need for more technically trained individuals, the organizations can
–define the jobs and skills needed in some detail,
— hire and train recruiters to look for the specified skills and
–provide new training for existing employees.
By anticipating future HRM needs, the organization can prepare itself to meet competitive challenges more effectively than organizations that react to problems only as they arise.
An important step in recruiting is to get a clear picture of what kind of people the organization needs. Basic building blocks of human resource management include job analysis and job description. Job analysis is a process of collecting information about the essential duties, tasks and responsibilities of a job, as well as about the context within which the job is performed. To perform a job analysis, managers or specialists ask about work activities and work flow, the supervision given and received in the job, knowledge and skills needed, performance standards, working conditions, and so on. The manager then prepares a written job description which in a clear manner indicates the specific tasks, duties, and responsibilities and job specification, which outlines the knowledge, skills, education, physical abilities, and other characteristics needed to adequately perform the job.
Job analysis helps organizations recruit the right kind of people. Managers are tracked on their development and moved into other positions to help them acquire the needed skills.
Job analysis also helps enhance the recruiting effectiveness by enabling the creation of realistic job previews. A realistic job preview gives the applicants all information – positive and negative – about the job and the organization. Job previews increase employee satisfaction and reduce turnover, because they provide employees with the right growth, jobs, and organizations. Employees have a better basis on which to determine their stay with the organization based on the complete information.
Organizations must ensure that their recruiting practices conform to the law.
One of the fastest growing approaches to recruiting is the use of the internet which dramatically extends an organization’s recruiting reach. Although traditional recruiting methods such as print advertisements and job fairs work quite well for many companies, e-cruiting or recruiting job applicants online offers access to a wider pool of applicants and can save time and money. In addition to posting job openings on company web sites many organizations use commercial recruiting sites such as Monster.com, CareerBuilder.com and hotjobs.com where job seekers can post their resumes and companies can search for qualified applicants. Forrester Research reports that approximately 2.5 million resumes are posted online, and the number is growing.
Companies as diverse as Prudential Insurance, Infosys and Ernst and Young have used the Web for recruiting. E-cruiting cuts the time of recruitment it takes to fill a job down to 45 days. Costs go down, too. Organizations do not have to give up their traditional recruiting methods. The Internet has given HR managers new tools for searching the world to find the best available talent. The ‘do-it yourself’ retail giant R&D combines e-cruiting with psychometrics testing to quickly eliminate unsuitable candidates and build a database of potential applicants.
Organizations are also finding other ways to enhance their recruiting success. One highly effective approach is getting referrals from current employees. A company’s employees often know of someone who would be qualified for a position and fit in with the organization’s culture. Many organizations offer cash awards to employees who submit names of people who subsequently accept employment, because referral by current employees is one of the cheapest and most reliable methods of external recruiting. There can be other methods like going through data banks of consultants. But this can be tried for senior positions to neutralize on the costs.