Planned structuring of work is called job design. It answers the questions like what job is to be performed, by whom, at what place and time. It also seeks to justify the necessity of the job and spells out the way to perform it. The basic aim of job design is to minimize the amount of human exertion. In olden days, robust physical abilities were considered essential for a job. In modern times, most jobs are so designed that they suit the average worker, and abilities are more related to academic performance and experience.
In the context of an organization, a job has two basic elements — a human element and a work element. The human factors related to job design are physiological, social and psychological aspects.
Poor job designs affect a worker physically and mentally. Job design aims at developing work assignments to satisfy the organizational and technological requirements, and also simultaneously satisfying the personal individual requirements of the worker. Task is made up by two or more elements taken together
Job is made up of the set of tasks
Job design is a complex topic since a host of factors affect the ultimate job structure.
Degree of Labor specialization
Specialization has its pros and cons. On the positive side, it makes possible high speed and low cost of production. It, therefore, enhances our standard of living. On the negative side, it may have adverse effects on the worker like a feeling of ennui.
The chief merits of specialization for the management are as follows:
1. Speedy training of the work force,
2. High output due to repetitive nature of work,
3. Ease in recruiting,
4. Low wages as labor in substitutable
5. Close control over work flow /work loads.
Ergonomics / Human engineering
In a manufacturing company, there are two aspects — the physical facilities called hardware and the non-physical facilities called the software. The whole system is part of the physical environment of an organization. These components should be so arranged by the designer that there is harmonious operation. Ergonomics is an attempt to match the characteristics and abilities of people involved to the various parts of the system. Once ergonomics is applied, there are better opportunities for the designer to improve the system. Ergonomics is somewhat similar to human reactors with engineering. Human engineering is a field of study concerned with human capabilities and constraints in the design of tools, instrument and work places.