Different elements of a job require different skills. It is difficult to rate a whole job or to apply overall allowances to the basic time. Each job is broken down into elements and each kind of work is given its own rating and allowances.
Element is a distinct part of a specified activity or task composed of one or more fundamental motions or machine activities, selected for convenience of observation, measurement and analysis.
Work cycle is a complete sequence of elements necessary to perform a specified activity or task so as to yield one unit of production. It may also include elements which do not occur in every cycle. Following are the reasons for breaking up job into its constituent elements:
1. To ensure that productive work (and corresponding productive time) is separated from unproductive activity.
2. To permit the rate of performance to be assessed more accurately than would be the case if the assessment were made over a complete cycle. The operator may not work at the same pace and may be found to perform some operations faster than others.
3. To enable the elements involving light fatigue to be isolated and to make the allocation of the rest allowances more accurate.
4. To enable time standards to be checked so that the later omission or insertion of elements is quickly detected.
5. To enable a detailed job specifications to be produced.
6. To enable standards time values for frequently recurring elements such as the operation of machine controls of loading and unloading w / p from fixtures to be established. (for PMTS)
Various Types of Elements
1. Repetitive elements are those elements which occur in every cycle of the given activity of task. E.g. loading and unloading.
2. Constant elements are those elements which may occur in every cycle or not, but they are identical in specification and time from cycle to cycle e.g. switch on machine, put cutting tool on post.
3. Variable elements are those, in which the time of performances varies in relation with characteristics of the product equipment on the process, such as dimension, or weight of the object e.g. loading and unloading of trucks.
4. Occasional elements are those elements which do not occur in every cycle of the task, but may take place either at regular intervals or randomly e.g. weaving in the textile will, replacing the bobbin (regular interval), (random) breaking of threads, help labor load and unload boxes of casting (10 per box 58kg 2 men 1 / 30 cycles)
5. Foreign element: These are the elements observed during the study but do not form the necessary part of the given activity of the cycle e.g. the operator stopping the machine, and talk to his friend.
6. Governing element: When two elements are going on simultaneously in given a cycle, the elements that takes longer time is called governing element, e.g. Boil kettle water, while setting out teapot and cups.
7. Manual element is the element performed by the worker.
8. Machine element is an element automatically performed by a machine e.g. pressing part.