After the organizational positions are identified, managers are obtained through recruitment, selection, placement, and promotion. There are basically two sources of managerial personnel: People from within the enterprise may be promoted or transferred, and managers may be hired from the outside. For internal promotions, a computerized information system may help to identify qualified candidates. It can be used in conjunction with a comprehensive human resource plan. Specifically, it can be utilized to anticipate staff requirements, new openings, attritions, development needs, and career planning.
There are also several external sources available, and the enterprises may use different methods in finding qualified managers. Many employment agencies public and private and executive recruiters (sometimes called â€œheadhuntersâ€) locate suitable candidates for positions. Other sources for managers are professional associations, educational institutions, referrals from people within the enterprise, and, of course, unsolicited applications from persons interested in the firm.
Recruitment of Managers:
Recruiting and attracting candidates to fill the positions in the organization structure. Before recruiting begins, the positionâ€™s requirements which should relate directly to the task must be clearly identified. This makes it easier to recruit candidates from the outside. Enterprises with a favorable public image find it easier to attract qualified candidates. A company such as IBM (International Business Machines) has a well-recognized image, while small firms which frequently offer excellent growth and development opportunities may have to make great efforts to communicate to the applicant the kinds of products, services, and opportunities the firm offers.
Recruitment in the public sector has many similarities to recruitment in the private sector. However, government regulations or policies may demand that managers adhere to special hiring guidelines. For example, legislation may require that potential employees live within a municipalityâ€™s boundaries. Another difference is that applicants for public sector positions often have to take competitive tests such as civil services examinations, although an increasing number of privately owned enterprises are using written and oral tests as well.
Unfortunately, the selection process in government is not always as objective and rational as it should be, and the practice of making decisions in criteria other than competence is probably not unusual. It is unthinkable for a major corporation to put a person without considerable managerial experience in charge of 5,000 people, yet in government this is not uncommon. Thus, in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of government, a better selection process is required.