Selection is the process of choosing potential employees who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organization. The basic purpose is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the group of qualified candidates.
The purpose of selection is to short list the most suitable candidate who would meet the requirements of the job and suit the organization best. The company obtains and assesses information about the applicant in terms of age, qualifications, skills, experience etc. The needs of the job are then matched with the profile of candidates. The most suitable person is then picked up after eliminating the unsuitable applications through successive stages of selection process. How well an employee is matched to a job is very important because it directly affects the amount and quality of employee’s work. Any mismatch in this regard can cost an organization a great deal of money, time and trouble especially in terms of training and operating costs. In course of time the employee may find the job distasteful and leave in frustration. He may even give out negative information about the company, causing a lot of negative effect in the long run to the organization. Proper selection, therefore, demands constant monitoring of the “suitability” between person and the job.
Selection is usually a series of steps. Each one must be successfully cleared before the applicant proceeds to the next. The separate and distinct selection process would normally include initial screening interview, completion of the application form, employment tests, elaborate interview covering requisite aspects, background investigation, conditional job offer, physical or medical examination, and the permanent job offer. The time and importance placed on each step will be different from one organization to another and from job to job within the same organization. Some organizations may give importance to testing while others may give interviews and reference checks due importance. Similarly a single brief selection interview might be enough for applicants for lower level positions, while applicants for managerial jobs might be interview by a number of people.
The global giants use selection testing as a basis for picking up right candidates to fill the vacancies arising internally.
One global giant uses extensive psychometric instruments to evaluate short listed candidates. The company uses occupational personality questionnaire to understand the candidate’s personal attributes and occupational testing to measure competencies.
Another giant company uses 3 psychometric tests to measure a person’s ability as a team player, to check personality types and to find a person’s reaction, decision making skills and assertiveness.
One company uses India as a global recruitment resource. To select professionals for global careers with it, the company uses a competency based interviewing problem solving, managing the environment. To succeed in a global position the individuals must possess strong functional knowledge and come from a cosmopolitan background.
After selecting a candidate, he should be placed on a suitable job. Placement is the actual posting of an employee to a particular job. It involves assigning a specific rank and responsibility to an employee. The placement decisions are taken by the line manager after matching the requirements of a job with the qualification of a candidate. Most organizations put new recruits on probation for a given period of time, after which their services are confirmed. During this period, the performance of the probationer is closely monitored. If the new recruit fails to adjust himself to the job and turns out poor performance, the organization may consider his name for placement elsewhere. Such second placement is called differential placement.
Induction is the task of introducing the new employees to the organization and its policies, procedures and rules. A typical formal orientation programme may last a day or less in most organizations. During this time, the new employee is provided with information about the company, its history its current position the benefits for which he is eligible, leave rules, rest periods, etc. Also covered are the more routine things a newcomer must learn, such as the location of the rest rooms, break rooms, parking spaces, cafeteria etc. In some organizations all this is done informally by attaching new employees to their seniors, who provide guidance on the above matters. Lectures, handbooks, films, groups, seminars are also provided to new employees so that they can settle down quickly and resume the work.
Induction is a necessary part of the selection process. It is essential because the newcomer may feel insecure, shy, nervous and frustrated. Absence of information, lack of knowledge about new environment, behavioural variations complicate the matters further. Induction helps the employees to gain acquaintance with the colleagues.