Any organizational structure requires a variety of people, and the supply of people consists of differing types. The staffing function includes the process by which the right person is placed in the right organizational position. Human resource administration involves matching the jobs and people through preparation of specifications necessary for positions, appraising the performance of personnel, training and retraining of people to fit the needs of the organizational positions, and develop methods by which people will respond with maximum effort and increased satisfaction. Often the organization structure includes a special functional department to administer the program. This often is called the personnel or industrial relations department.
First, the staffing of organizational roles includes knowledge and approaches not usually recognized by practicing managers who often think of organizing as just setting up a structure of roles and give little attention to filling these roles. Second, making staffing a separate function facilitates placing an even greater emphasis on the human element in selection, appraisal, career planning, and manager development. Third, an important body of knowledge and experience has been developed in the area of staffing. Fourth, managers often overlook the fact that staffing is their responsibility and not that of the personnel department.
The functional aspects of personnel management include recruitment of personnel, placement of personnel in the proper positions in the structure, training and development of personnel to suit the needs of the organization, and service activities directly related to the welfare of personnel.
Formal routines and techniques have been developed for the rationalization of the personnel functions. Interviewing techniques have received considerable attention. The development and standardization of tests to measure aptitude, achievement, and personality have provided management with additional tools for providing objectivity in the process. Job evaluation has remained an important process in its use of job descriptions, job specifications and job analysis. Merit rating systems have formalized procedures of evaluation of performance in a specific job for purposes of pay increases and promotions.
After the needs of the organization are determined through establishing a rational job structure by means of detailed job description and analysis of facts about the jobs, staffing involves locating suitable people to fit the jobs. Recruitment of personnel involves the use of several general techniques, including (1) personal data sheets or resumes; (2) batteries of tests measuring achievement, aptitude, proficiency, personality, and interests; and (3) interviews with the screened prospective candidates. These techniques are described in specialized literature on personnel management.
After the personnel are hired, the staffing function shifts to administering the human assets of the organization by planning and implementing a system of performance a system of performance appraisal. Concurrent with this appraisal is the development of a compensation system which will reward the personnel in an equitable and feasible manner.
As a result of demands of the organization for continual improvement of qualifications, the staffing function devotes a large portion of its effort to special programs of training and development. These efforts include use of orientation programs; apprentice training, programmed instruction, formal short courses administered by the organization, and support of continuing education offered by educational institutions.
Human resource administration, furthermore, deals with handling grievance and the resolution of conflicts of personnel in their performance of duties. Suggestions system grievance procedures in conjunction with union representative in organized plants, and improved participation of employees are techniques available for this part of the function.
Manpower planning and forecasting future needs of the organization have received increased attention. Systems by which replacements are trained for each position are often elaborate. For example, many firms use a threefold approach to planning for each position: development of the present occupant of the position a trained replacement who can take over immediately if needed, and a third person who is being trained for the position and who can be available within a specified period of time.