Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Ads can be a cost-effective way to disseminate messages whether to build a brand preference or to educate people.
Organizations handle advertising in different ways. In small companies, advertising is handled by someone in the sales or marketing, who works with an advertising agency. A large company will often set up its own department, whose manager reports to the vice president of marketing. The department’s job is to propose a budget, develop strategy approve ads and campaign, and handle direct-mail advertising dealer displays, and other forms of advertising.
Most companies use an outside agency to help create advertising campaigns and to select and purchase media. Today, advertising agencies are redefining themselves as communications companies that assist clients to improve their overall communications effectiveness by offering strategic and practical advice on many forms of communication?
In developing an advertising program, marketing managers must always start by identifying the target market and buyer motives. Then they can make the five major decisions, known as “the five Ms” Mission. What are the advertising objectives? Money: How much can be spent? Message: What message should be sent? Media: What media should be used? Measurement: How the results should be evaluated?
The advertising objectives must flow from prior decisions on target market, brand positioning and the marketing program.
An advertising goal (or objective) is a specific communications task and achievement level to be accomplished with a specific period of time.
To increase among 30 million homemakers who own automatic washers the number who identify Brand X as a low-sudsing detergent and who are persuaded that it gets clothes cleaner from 10-40% in one year.
Advertising objectives can be classified according to whether their aim is to inform, persuade, remind, or reinforce.
Informative advertising aims to create brand awareness and knowledge of new products or new features of existing products. One of the all-time most memorable ads starred Australian rugby player Jacko for Energizer batteries. He was shown dressed as a battery, bursting into an early morning subway car, repeatedly shouting out the brand name to the commuters. Unfortunately, people remembered the name – but hated the ad! Brand awareness cannot come at the expense of brand attitudes.
Persuasive advertising aims to create liking preference, conviction, and purchase of a product or service. Chivas Regal attempts to persuade consumers that it delivers more taste and status than other brands of Scotch whiskey. Some persuasive advertising uses comparative advertising, which makes an explicit comparison of the attributes of two or more brands. For years, VISA has run a successful ad campaign called “It’s Everywhere You Want to Be,” that showcase desirable locations and events that don’t accept the American Express card. Comparative advertising works best when it elicits cognitive and affective motivations simultaneously.
Reminder advertising aims to stimulate repeat purchase of products and services. Expensive, four color Coca-Cola ads in Magazines are intended to remind people to purchase Coca-Cola.
Reinforcement advertising aims to convince current purchasers that they made the right choice. Automobile ads often depict satisfied customers enjoying special features of their new car.