SELECTION PROCESS IN AN ORGANIZATION-KEY FACTORS
After identifying the sources of human resources, searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. This may be either through advertisements, agencies or direct references from the existing employees of the organization. The next action to be taken shall be the management has to perform the function of selecting the right employees at the right time.
The selection procedure is the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidatesâ€™ specifications are matched with the job specifications and requirements. The selection procedure cannot be effective until and unless,
1. Requirement of the job to be filled, have been clearly specified
2. Employee specifications (physical, mental, social, and behavioral, etc) have been clearly formulated.
3. Candidates for screening have been attracted.
Thus, the development of job analysis, human resources planning and recruitment are necessary prerequisites to the selection process. A breakdown in any of these processes can make even the best selection system ineffective.
Essentials of Selection Procedure
The selection process can be successful if the following requirements are satisfied:
1. Some one should have the authority to select. This authority comes from the employment requisition, as developed by an analysis of the work-load and work-force.
2. There must be some standard of personnel with which a prospective employee may be compared, i.e. a comprehensive job description and job specification should be available beforehand.
3. There must be a sufficient number of applicants from whom the required number of employees may be selected.
Significance of Selection Process
Selection of personnel for an organization is a crucial, complex and continuing function. The ability of an organization to attain its goals effectively and to develop in a dynamic environment largely depends upon the effectiveness of its selection programs. In a situation where the right person is not selected, the remaining functions of personnel management, employee-employer relations will not be effective. If the right person is selected, he/she is a valuable asset to the organization and if faulty selection is made, the employee will become a liability to the organization.
The manner in which tasks and responsibilities for accepting or rejecting candidates must be finalized before designing a selection procedure. This should be shared by line and staff executives. The personnel department should eliminate all unsuccessful candidates, so that the time of the line executives need not be spent on such people. Secondly, candidates who can meet job requirements should be made available promptly. Line executive is ultimately vested with the authority either to accept or to reject a candidate. However, the personnel officer has a duty to see that the right candidates are selected and placement is done wisely. If he is not satisfied in this regard, he should give his views to the superior and should avoid involving himself in argument with departmental head on methods of selection.
Using Selection Agencies/ Consultants
Some private agencies/consultants in India perform the function of recruitment and selection so as to enable the organizations to concentrate on their main functions. They advertise, conduct tests and interview and provide a short list. Some companies have started using the services of these agencies as they provide expertise and reduce work load. The organization has to take these following factors into consideration in selecting an agency or a consultant:
1. Reputation, effectiveness, sincerity and punctuality of the organization.
2. Advertisement copy, design and media plans of various agencies;
3. Amount of fee, payment period and mode;
4. Objectivity, fair and justice in selection;
5. Selection techniques to be adopted, particularly psychological tests, interview methods etc,
6. Competence of the human resources of the agency/consulting firm
The company has to do the following in case of using an agency or a consultant.
(a) Briefing the agency about the requirements, terms and conditions and employment;
(b) Providing job and employee specifications and helping the consultant in modifying them;
(c) Checking and reviewing the draft of the advertisement.
(d) Ensuring that all arrangements are made for conducting test and interview.
Factors Affecting Selection Decisions
The goal of selection is to sort out or eliminate those judged unqualified to meet the job and organizational requirements, whereas the goal of recruitment is to create a large pool of persons available and willing to work. Thus, it is said that recruitment tends to be positive while selection tends to be some what negative.
A number of factors affect the selection decision of candidates. The important among them are:
(a) Profile matching.
(b) Organizational and social environment.
(c) Successive hurdles.
(d) Multiple correlation
Profile Matching: Tentative decision regarding the selection of candidates (who are known) is taken in advance. The scores secured by these known candidates in various tests are taken as a standard to decide the success or failure of other candidates at each stage. Normally, the decision about the known candidates is taken at interview stage. Possible care is also taken to match the candidateâ€™s bio-data with the job specifications.
Organizational and Social Environment:
Some candidates, who are eminently suitable for the job, may fail as successful employees due to varying organizational and social environment. Hence, candidatesâ€™ specifications must match with not only job specifications but also with organizational and social environmental requirements.
Successive Hurdles: In this method hurdles are created at every stage of selection process. Therefore, applicants must successfully pass each and every screening device in case of successive hurdles.
Multiple Correlations: Multiple correlations is based on the assumption that a deficiency in one factor can be counter-balanced by an excess amount of another. The composite test score index is taken into accounting the selection tests. Hence, for broader line cases multiple correlation method is useful and for other successive hurdles method is useful.
We summarize, the obvious guiding policy in selection is the intention to choose the best qualified and suitable job candidate for each unfilled job. The objective of the selection decision is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. A candidate is routed through all the selection steps before a decision is made. If right personnel are selected, the remaining functions of personnel management become easier. The employeesâ€™ contribution and commitment will be at optimum level and employee-employer relations will be congenial.