Every manger does many things that are not managing. He may spend most of his time on them. A sales manager makes a statistical analysis or placates or places an important customer. A foreman repairs a tool or fills in a production report. A manufacturing manager designs a new plant layout or tests new materials. A company president works through the details of a bank loan or negotiates a big contract – or spends dreary hours presiding at a dinner in honor of long service employees. All these things pertain to a particular function. All are necessary and have to be done well.
But they are apart from that work which every manger does whatever his function or activity, whatever his rank and position, work which is common to all mangers and peculiar to them. The best proof is that we can apply to the job of the manager the systematic analysis of Scientific Management. We can isolate that which a man does because he is a manager. We can divide it into the basic constituent operations. And a man improves his performance as a manager by improving his performance of these constituent motions.
There are five such basic operations in the work of the manager. Together they result in the integration of resources into a living and growing organism.
A manager, in the first place, sets objectives. He determines what the objectives should be. He determines what the goal in each area of objectives should be. He decides what has to be done to reach these objectives. He makes the objectives effective by communicating them to the people whose performance is need to attain them.
Secondly, a manager organizes. He analyzes the activities, decisions and relations needed. He classifies the work. He divides it into manageable activities. He further divides the activities into manageable jobs. He groups these units and jobs into an organization structure. He selects people for the management of these units ad for the jobs to be done.
Next a manager motivates and communicates. He makes a team out of the people that are responsible for various jobs. He does that through the practices with which he manages. He does it in his own relation to the men he manages. He does it through incentive and rewards for successful work. He does in through his promotion policy. And he does it through constant communication, both from the manager to his subordinate, and from the subordinate to the manager.
The fourth basic element to the work of the manager is the job of measurement. The manager establishes measuring yardsticks and there are few factors as important to the performance of the organization and of every man in it. He sees to it that each in the organization has measurements available to him which are focused on the performance of the whole organization and which at the same time focus on the work of the individual and help him do it. He analyzes performances, appraises it and interprets it. And again, as in very other area of his work, he communicates both the meaning of the measurements and their findings to his subordinates as well as to is superiors.
Finally, a manager develops people. Through the way he manages he makes it easy or difficult for them to develop themselves. He directs people or misdirects them. He brings out what is in them or he stifles them. He strengthens their integrity or he corrupts them. He trains them to stand right and strong or he deforms them.
Every manger does these things when he manages – whether he knows it or not. He may do them properly or may do them wretchedly. But he always does them.
Every one of these categories can be divided further into sub-categories. The work of the manager, in other words, is complex. And every one of its categories requires different qualities and qualifications.