RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN JOB ANALYSIS
An individual suffering from an uncomfortable amount of job-related stress cannot enjoy a high quality of work life. Stress occurs whenever environmental forces (stimuli) throw the body and mental functions of a person out of disequilibrium. A person who does not feel comfortable with his work environment is in what psychologists usually refer to as in a state of disequilibrium. The personâ€™s skills, abilities, and goals do not fit with the work environment that is boss, co-workers, and compensation system.
The costs of the lack of fit in person/environment can be many: subjective (feeling fatigued), behavioral (accident prone), cognitive (a mental block), physiological (elevated blood pressure) and/or organizational (higher absence rate).
In an effort to combat stress, many organizations have recently instigated training programs designed to help reduce employee stress. There are two ways to cope with stress. The first is to eliminate the source of the stressor(s) that is causing the stress.
This means changing policies, the structure, the work requirements, or whatever is necessary. The second approach is to deal with stress individually or organizationally individual stress coping programs include meditation, physical exercise, training, diet, even prayer. These programs, it must be noted, work for some people. They help the person feel better, relax and regenerate energy.
Organizations can also take a number of steps to reduce occupational stress. The possibilities are practicing good management, create meaningful jobs, modify organizational design, use shared decision making, and identify potential stressors that allow for stress release activities in the work environment. This may be done though meditation rooms and aggressive hostility rooms wherein a few punching bags symbolizing offending managers/co-workers are kept that bounce back after being punched or struck with a plastic bat. Improve organizational climate by practicing good management and creating a supportive environment where both managers and workers feel identified and taken care of.
Worker Participation: In recent times there has been a clear demand for more participation in the decision-making process at the work-place. Employees want to be involved in organizational work, involved in making decisions and implementing changes. Five broad types of participate techniques are generally advocated
Autonomous Work Groups: When an autonomous work groups is created, the group manages itself and controls the planning and decision-making within the group. The group elects its own quantity and quality output levels. Autonomous work group may take many forms and one is the quality circles format that is very popular in Japan. A Quality circle is a group of employees (4 to 10) from the same department who meet on company time to solve work-related problems such as waste, damage, or equipment maintenance, facilities planning, communication problem etc.
Union Management Problem-solving Ventures: Joint union management committees are formulated to prevent potential problems from occurring or escalating
Participative Work design: Where tasks are highly interdependent and employees have high personal growth needs, teams are created to redesign the Job(s) keeping the technical and human requirements in mind. Each team is given the responsibility of planning, doing and quality control of major component of the work.
Profit Sharing Plans: Where workers can affect the major factors that influence economic performance such as labor hours, materials or damage, management try to share profits with employees based on some formula. Many firms see profit sharing as a way to increase employee satisfaction and quality and to reduce absenteeism and turnover. They contend that employees who have profit-sharing plans identify more closely with the company and its profit goals and thus they reduce waste and increase productivity.
Employees Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP): Workers ownership of at least part of an enterprise is already widespread in most of the developed countries, and is adopted now in India. Jaipur Metals and Electricals Ltd., which was once dubbed as deadwood has been able to achieve the turn around after ESOP is adopted. To establish an ESOP, a firm establishes a trust that borrows money from a bank, which it then uses to buy company stock. Overtime the shares that the trust holds are allocated free of charge to company employees in direct proportion to their pay and seniority. Workers are allowed to sell their stock only when they quit or retire.
There are doubts about the practical conditions and strategies of quality of work life as it would be difficult for the organizations to implement all the conditions. Some organizations have been providing part of the conditions and strategies while the others are tending towards them. These organizations have to take these conditions and strategies into considerations is designing or redesigning the jobs.