To stay alive, Jack Pritchard had to change his life. Triple bypass surgery and medication could help, the heart surgeon told him, but no technical x could release Pritchard from his own responsibility for changing the habits of a lifetime. He had to stop smoking, improve his diet, get some exercise and take time to relax, remembering to breathe more deeply each day. Pritchard’s doctor could provide sustaining technical expertise and take supportive action, but only Pritchard could adapt his ingrained habits to improve his long term health. The doctor faced the leadership task of mobilizing the patient to make critical behavioral changes. Jack Pritchard faced the adaptive work of figuring out which specific changes to make and how to incorporate them into his daily life.
Companies today face challenges similar to the ones confronting Pritchard and his doctor. They face adaptive challenges. Changes in societies, markets, customers, competition and technology around the globe are forcing organizations to clarify their values, develop new strategies, and learn new ways of operating. Often the toughest task for leaders is effecting change is mobilizing people throughout the organization to do adaptive work.
Adaptive work is required when our deeply held beliefs are challenged, when the values that made us successful become less relevant, and when legitimate yet competing perspectives emerge. We see adaptive challenges every day at every level of the workplace when companies restructure or reengineer, develop or implement strategy, of merge businesses. We see adaptive challenges when marketing has difficulty working with operations, when cross functional teams don’t work well, or when senior executives complain, we don’t seem to be able to execute effectively. Adaptive problems are often systematic problems with no ready answers.
Mobilizing an organization to adapt its behaviors in order to thrive in new business environments is critical. Without such change, any company today would falter. Indeed getting people to do adaptive work is the mark of leadership in a competitive world. Yet for most senior executives, providing leadership and not just authoritative expertise is extremely difficult. Why? We see two reasons. First, in order to make change happen, executives have to break a long standing behavior pattern of their own: providing leadership in the form of solutions. This tendency is quite natural because many executives reach their positions of authority by virtue of their competence in taking responsibility and solving problems. But the locus of responsibility for problem solving when a company faces an adaptive challenge must shift to its people. Solutions to adaptive challenges reside not in the executive suite but in the collective intelligence of employees at all levels, who need to use one another as resources, often across boundaries, and learn their way to those solutions.
Second, adaptive change is distressing for the people going through it. They need to take on new roles, new relationships, new values, new behaviors, and new approaches to work. Many employees are ambivalent about the efforts and sacrifices required of them. They often look to the senior executive to take problems off their shoulders. But those expectations have to be unlearned. Rather than fulfilling the expectation that they will provide answers, leaders have to ask tough questions. Rather than protecting people from outside threats, leaders should allow them to feel the pinch of reality in order to simulate them to adapt. Instead of orienting people to their current roles, leaders must disorient them so that new relationships can develop. Instead of quelling conflict, leaders have to draw the issues out. Instead of maintaining norms, leaders have to challenge the way we do business and help others distinguish immutable values from historical practices that must go.
Drawing on our experience with managers from around the world, we offer six principles for leading adaptive work” getting on the balcony identifying the adaptive challenge, regulating distress, maintaining disciplined attention, giving thee work back to people and protecting voices of leadership from below. We illustrate those principles with an example of adaptive change at KPMG Netherlands, a professional services form.